Douglas MacArthur

Douglas MacArthur
MacArthur in khaki trousers and open necked shirt with five-star-rank badges on the collar. He is wearing his field marshal's cap and smoking a corncob pipe.
MacArthur in Manila, Philippines c. 1945, with a corncob pipe
Nickname(s)Gaijin Shogun (外人将軍)
 • English: Foreign General
Dugout Doug
Big Chief
Born(1880-01-26)January 26, 1880
Little Rock, Arkansas, U.S.
DiedApril 5, 1964(1964-04-05) (aged 84)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Allegiance United States
Service/branch United States Army
Philippine Army
Years of service1903–1964
Rank General of the Army (U.S. Army)
Field Marshal (Philippine Army)
Service numberO-57
Commands heldUnited Nations Command
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
Southwest Pacific Area
U.S. Army Forces Far East
Philippine Department
U.S. Army Chief of Staff
Philippine Division
U.S. Military Academy Superintendent
42nd Division
84th Infantry Brigade
Battles/warsMexican Revolution
 • United States occupation of Veracruz
World War I
 • Champagne-Marne Offensive
 • Battle of Saint-Mihiel
 • Meuse-Argonne Offensive
World War II
 • Philippines Campaign (1941–1942)
 • New Guinea campaign
 • Philippines Campaign (1944–1945)
 • Borneo campaign (1945)
 • Occupation of Japan
Korean War
 • Battle of Inchon
 • UN Offensive, 1950
 • UN Offensive, 1951
AwardsMedal of Honor
Distinguished Service Cross (3)
Army Distinguished Service Medal (5)
Navy Distinguished Service Medal
Silver Star (7)
Distinguished Flying Cross
Bronze Star
Air Medal
Purple Heart (2)
Complete list
Louise Cromwell Brooks
(m. 1922; div. 1929)

Jean Faircloth (m. 1937)
ChildrenArthur MacArthur IV
RelationsSee MacArthur family
Other workChairman of the board of Remington Rand
SignatureDMacarthur Signature.svg

General of the Army Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 – April 5, 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign, which made him and his father Arthur MacArthur Jr. the first father and son to be awarded the medal. He was one of only five to rise to the rank of General of the Army in the US Army, and the only one conferred the rank of field marshal in the Philippine Army.

Raised in a military family in the American Old West, MacArthur was valedictorian at the West Texas Military Academy, and First Captain at the United States Military Academy at West Point, where he graduated top of the class of 1903. During the 1914 United States occupation of Veracruz, he conducted a reconnaissance mission, for which he was nominated for the Medal of Honor. In 1917, he was promoted from major to colonel and became chief of staff of the 42nd (Rainbow) Division. In the fighting on the Western Front during World War I, he rose to the rank of brigadier general, was again nominated for a Medal of Honor, and was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross twice and the Silver Star seven times.

From 1919 to 1922, MacArthur served as Superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, where he attempted a series of reforms. His next assignment was in the Philippines, where in 1924 he was instrumental in quelling the Philippine Scout Mutiny. In 1925, he became the Army's youngest major general. He served on the court-martial of Brigadier General Billy Mitchell and was president of the American Olympic Committee during the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. In 1930, he became Chief of Staff of the United States Army. As such, he was involved in the expulsion of the Bonus Army protesters from Washington, D.C. in 1932, and the establishment and organization of the Civilian Conservation Corps. He retired from the US Army in 1937 to become Military Advisor to the Commonwealth Government of the Philippines.

MacArthur was recalled to active duty in 1941 as commander of United States Army Forces in the Far East. A series of disasters followed, starting with the destruction of his air forces on 8 December 1941 and the Japanese invasion of the Philippines. MacArthur's forces were soon compelled to withdraw to Bataan, where they held out until May 1942. In March 1942, MacArthur, his family and his staff left nearby Corregidor Island in PT boats and escaped to Australia, where MacArthur became Supreme Commander, Southwest Pacific Area. Upon his arrival, MacArthur gave a speech in which he famously promised "I shall return" to the Philippines. After more than two years of fighting in the Pacific, he fulfilled that promise. For his defense of the Philippines, MacArthur was awarded the Medal of Honor. He officially accepted the Surrender of Japan on 2 September 1945 aboard the USS Missouri, which was anchored in Tokyo Bay, and he oversaw the occupation of Japan from 1945 to 1951. As the effective ruler of Japan, he oversaw sweeping economic, political and social changes. He led the United Nations Command in the Korean War with initial success; however, the controversial invasion of North Korea provoked Chinese intervention, and a series of major defeats. MacArthur was contentiously removed from command by President Harry S. Truman on 11 April 1951. He later became chairman of the board of Remington Rand.

Early life and education

A military brat, Douglas MacArthur was born 26 January 1880, at Little Rock Barracks, Little Rock, Arkansas, to Arthur MacArthur Jr., a U.S. Army captain, and his wife, Mary Pinkney Hardy MacArthur (nicknamed "Pinky").[1] Arthur Jr. was the son of Scottish-born jurist and politician Arthur MacArthur Sr.,[2] Arthur would later receive the Medal of Honor for his actions with the Union Army in the Battle of Missionary Ridge during the American Civil War,[3] and be promoted to the rank of lieutenant general.[4] Pinkney came from a prominent Norfolk, Virginia, family.[1] Two of her brothers had fought for the South in the Civil War, and refused to attend her wedding.[5] Of the extended family, MacArthur is also distantly related to Matthew Perry, a Commodore of the US Navy.[6] Arthur and Pinky had three sons, of whom Douglas was the youngest, following Arthur III, born on 1 August 1876, and Malcolm, born on 17 October 1878.[7] The family lived on a succession of Army posts in the American Old West. Conditions were primitive, and Malcolm died of measles in 1883.[8] In his memoir, Reminiscences, MacArthur wrote "I learned to ride and shoot even before I could read or write—indeed, almost before I could walk and talk."[9]

A ornate chair and a table with a book on it. A man sits in the chair, wearing an American Civil War style peaked cap. On his sleeves he wears three stripes pointed down with a lozenge of a First Sergeant.
MacArthur as a student at West Texas Military Academy in the late 1890s

MacArthur's time on the frontier ended in July 1889 when the family moved to Washington, D.C.,[10] where he attended the Force Public School. His father was posted to San Antonio, Texas, in September 1893. While there MacArthur attended the West Texas Military Academy,[11] where he was awarded the gold medal for "scholarship and deportment". He also participated on the school tennis team, and played quarterback on the school football team and shortstop on its baseball team. He was named valedictorian, with a final year average of 97.33 out of 100.[12] MacArthur's father and grandfather unsuccessfully sought to secure Douglas a presidential appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point, first from President Grover Cleveland and then from President William McKinley.[13] After these two rejections,[14] he was given coaching and private tutoring by Milwaukee high school teacher Gertrude Hull.[15] He then passed the examination for an appointment from Congressman Theobald Otjen,[11] scoring 93.3 on the test.[16] He later wrote: "It was a lesson I never forgot. Preparedness is the key to success and victory."[16]

MacArthur entered West Point on 13 June 1899,[17] and his mother also moved there, to a suite at Craney's Hotel, which overlooked the grounds of the Academy.[18] Hazing was widespread at West Point at this time, and MacArthur and his classmate Ulysses S. Grant III were singled out for special attention by southern cadets as sons of generals with mothers living at Craney's. When Cadet Oscar Booz left West Point after being hazed and subsequently died of tuberculosis, there was a congressional inquiry. MacArthur was called to appear before a special Congressional committee in 1901, where he testified against cadets implicated in hazing, but downplayed his own hazing even though the other cadets gave the full story to the committee. Congress subsequently outlawed acts "of a harassing, tyrannical, abusive, shameful, insulting or humiliating nature", although hazing continued.[19] MacArthur was a corporal in Company B in his second year, a first sergeant in Company A in his third year and First Captain in his final year.[20] He played left field for the baseball team and academically earned 2424.12 merits out of a possible 2470.00 or 98.14, which was the third highest score ever recorded. He graduated first in his 93-man class on 11 June 1903.[21] At the time it was customary for the top-ranking cadets to be commissioned into the United States Army Corps of Engineers, so MacArthur was commissioned as a second lieutenant in that corps.[22]

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文言: 麥克阿瑟