Dominican Republic

Not to be confused with Dominica. For other uses, see Dominican (disambiguation).

Dominican Republic
República Dominicana  ( Spanish)
Flag of Dominican Republic
Coat of arms of Dominican Republic
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Dios, Patria, Libertad" (Spanish)
"God, Homeland, Freedom"
Anthem:  Quisqueyanos Valientes
Valiant Quisqueyans 
Location of Dominican Republic
and largest city
Santo Domingo
19°00′N 70°40′W / 19.000°N 70.667°W / 19°00′N 70°40′W / 19.000; -70.667
Official languages Spanish
Ethnic groups ( 1960 [1]b)
Demonym Dominican
Government Unitary presidential republic
•  President
Danilo Medina
Margarita Cedeño de Fernández
Legislature Congress
Chamber of Deputies
• from Spain ( ephemeral)
December 1, 1821 [2]
• from Haiti ( official)
February 27, 1844 [2] (not recognized by Haiti until November 9, 1874)c [3]
August 16, 1863 [2] (recognized on March 3, 1865)
• from the United States (occupation)
July 12, 1924 [4]
• Total
48,442 km2 (18,704 sq mi) ( 128th)
• Water (%)
0.7 [5]
• 2016 estimate
10,075,045 [6] ( 88th)
•  2010 census
9,478,612 [7]
• Density
197/km2 (510.2/sq mi) ( 65th)
GDP ( PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$160.86 billion [8] ( 72nd)
• Per capita
$15,946 [8] ( 76th)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$71.46 billion [8] ( 67th)
• Per capita
$7,083 [8] ( 74th)
Gini (2012)  47.1 [9]
HDI (2014) Increase 0.715 [10]
high ·  101st
Currency Peso [2] ( DOP)
Time zone Standard Time Caribbean ( UTC – 4:00 [5])
Drives on the right
Calling code +1-809, +1-829, +1-849
ISO 3166 code DO
Internet TLD .do [5]
  1. Race was dropped from the census after 1960.
  2. Including Arabs as well.
  3. A covenant was signed between two commissions from both countries on July 26, 1867, but it did not enter into force because it was not approved by the Senate of Haiti.
Sources for area, capital, coat of arms, coordinates, flag, language, motto and names:  [2]
For an alternate area figure of 48,730 km2, calling code 809 and Internet TLD:  [5]

The Dominican Republic ( Spanish: República Dominicana [reˈpuβlika ðominiˈkana]) is a sovereign state occupying the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region. The western one-third of the island is occupied by the nation of Haiti, [12] [13] making Hispaniola one of two Caribbean islands, along with Saint Martin, that are shared by two countries. The Dominican Republic is the second-largest Caribbean nation by area (after Cuba) at 48,445 square kilometres (18,705 sq mi), and 3rd by population with 10.08 million people, of which approximately three million live in the metropolitan area of Santo Domingo, the capital city. [14] [15]

Christopher Columbus landed on the Western part of Hispaniola, in what is now Haiti, on December 6, 1492, which the Taíno people had inhabited since the 7th century. The island became the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas; and the oldest continuously inhabited city and the first seat of the Spanish colonial rule in the New World. After more than three hundred years of Spanish rule the Dominican people declared independence in November 1821. The leader of the independence movement José Núñez de Cáceres, intended to unite with the country of Gran Colombia. However, the newly independent Dominicans were forcefully annexed by their more powerful neighbor Haiti in February 1822. After the 1844 victory in the Dominican War of Independence against Haitian rule the country fell again under Spanish colonial rule. The crown was ousted permanently during the Dominican War of Restoration of 1865. [16] [17] [18]

The Dominican Republic experienced mostly internal strife ( Second Republic) until 1916. A United States occupation lasted eight years between 1916 and 1924, and a subsequent calm and prosperous six-year period under Horacio Vásquez Lajara was followed by the dictatorship of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina until 1961. A civil war in 1965, the country's last, was ended by another U.S. military occupation and was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer, 1966–1978. Since then, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy [5] and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time since 1996. Danilo Medina, the Dominican Republic's current president, succeeded Fernandez in 2012, winning 51% of the electoral vote over his opponent ex-president Hipólito Mejía. [19]

The Dominican Republic has the ninth-largest economy in Latin America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region. [20] [21] Though long known for agriculture and mining, the economy is now dominated by services. [5] Over the last two decades, the Dominican Republic have been standing out as one of the fastest-growing economies in the Americas - with an average real GDP growth rate of 5.4% between 1992 and 2014. [22] GDP growth in 2014 and 2015 reached 7.3 and 7.0%, respectively, the highest in the Western Hemisphere. [22] In the first half of 2016 the Dominican economy grew 7.4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. [23]

Recent growth has been driven by construction, manufacturing and tourism. Private consumption has been strong, as a result of low inflation (under 1% on average in 2015), job creation, as well as high level of remittances. The Dominican Republic has a vibrant national stock market, Bolsa de Valores de la Republica Dominicana (BVRD). [24] The Dominican Republic's economic progress is exemplified by its advanced telecommunication system and transportation infrastructure. [25] Nevertheless, unemployment, [5] government corruption, and inconsistent electric service remain major Dominican problems. The country also has "marked income inequality." [5] International migration affects the Dominican Republic greatly, as it receives and sends large flows of migrants. Mass illegal Haitian immigration and the integration of Dominicans of Haitian descent are major issues. [26] A large Dominican diaspora exists, mostly in the United States, [27] contributes to development, sending billions of dollars to Dominican families in remittances. [5] [28]

The Dominican Republic is the most visited destination in the Caribbean. The year-round golf courses are major attractions. [25] A geographically diverse nation, the Dominican Republic is home to both the Caribbean's tallest mountain peak, Pico Duarte, as the Caribbean's largest lake and point of lowest elevation, Lake Enriquillo. [29] The island has an average temperature of 26 °C (78.8 °F) and great climatic and biological diversity. [25] The country is also the site of the first cathedral, castle, monastery, and fortress built in all of the Americas, located in Santo Domingo's Colonial Zone, a World Heritage Site. [30] [31] Music and sport are of great importance in the Dominican culture, with Merengue and Bachata as the national dance and music, and baseball as the favorite sport. [2]

Names and etymology

For most of its history (up until independence), the country was known as Santo Domingo [32] — the name of its present capital and patron saint, Saint Dominic—and continued to be commonly known as such in English until the early 20th century. [33] The residents were called Dominicanos (Dominicans), which is the adjective form of "Domingo," and the revolutionaries named their newly independent country La República Dominicana.

In the national anthem of the Dominican Republic ( Himno Nacional) the term "Dominican" never appears. The author of its lyrics, Emilio Prud'Homme, consistently uses the poetic term Quisqueyanos, that is, "Quisqueyans." The word "Quisqueya" derives from a native tongue of the Taino Indians and means, "Mother of all Lands." It is often used in songs as another name for the country. The name of the country is often shortened to "the D.R." [34]