Dominican Republic

Dominican Republic
República Dominicana  ( Spanish)
Motto: "Dios, Patria, Libertad" (Spanish)
"God, Homeland, Freedom"
Anthem:  Quisqueyanos Valientes
Valiant Quisqueyans 
Location of Dominican Republic
and largest city
Santo Domingo
19°00′N 70°40′W / 19°00′N 70°40′W / 19.000; -70.667
Official languages Spanish
Ethnic groups
Demonym Dominican
Quisqueyano (colloquial) [2]
Government Unitary presidential republic
•  President
Danilo Medina
Margarita Cedeño de Fernández
Legislature Congress
Chamber of Deputies
• from Spain ( ephemeral)
December 1, 1821 [3]
• from Haiti ( official)
February 27, 1844
August 16, 1863 [4]
• from the United States
July 12, 1924 [5]
• from the United States
July 1, 1965 [6]
• Total
48,315 km2 (18,655 sq mi) ( 128th)
• Water (%)
0.7 [7]
• 2017 estimate
10,800,857 [8] ( 86th)
•  2010 census
9,478,612 [9]
• Density
224/km2 (580.2/sq mi) ( 65th)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$174.180 billion [10] ( 72nd)
• Per capita
$17,096 [10] ( 76th)
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$76.850 billion [10] ( 67th)
• Per capita
$7,543 [10] ( 74th)
Gini (2015) Negative increase 44.9 [11]
HDI (2015) Increase 0.732 [12]
high ·  99th
Currency Peso [3] ( DOP)
Time zone Standard Time Caribbean ( UTC  – 4:00 [7])
Drives on the right
Calling code +1-809, +1-829, +1-849
ISO 3166 code DO
Internet TLD .do [7]
  1. Race was dropped from the census after 1960.
  2. Including Arabs as well.
  3. A covenant was signed between two commissions from both countries on July 26, 1867, but it did not enter into force because it was not approved by the Senate of Haiti.
Sources for area, capital, coat of arms, coordinates, flag, language, motto and names:  [3]
For an alternate area figure of 48,730 km2, calling code 809 and Internet TLD:  [7]

The Dominican Republic ( Spanish: República Dominicana [reˈpuβliˌka ðoˌminiˈkana]) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region. It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with the nation of Haiti, [13] [14] making Hispaniola one of two Caribbean islands, along with Saint Martin, that are shared by two countries. The Dominican Republic is the second-largest Caribbean nation by area (after Cuba) at 48,445 square kilometers (18,705 sq mi), and third by population with approximately 10 million people, of which approximately three million live in the metropolitan area of Santo Domingo, the capital city. [15] [16]

Christopher Columbus landed on the island on December 5, 1492, which the native Taíno people had inhabited since the 7th century. The colony of Santo Domingo became the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, the oldest continuously inhabited city, and the first seat of the Spanish colonial rule in the New World. After more than three hundred years of Spanish rule the Dominican people declared independence in November 1821. The leader of the independence movement José Núñez de Cáceres, intended the Dominican nation to unite with the country of Gran Colombia, but no longer under Spain's custody the newly independent Dominicans were forcefully annexed by Haiti in February 1822. Independence came 22 years later after victory in the Dominican War of Independence in 1844. Over the next 72 years the Dominican Republic experienced mostly internal conflicts and a brief return to colonial status before permanently ousting Spanish rule during the Dominican War of Restoration of 1865. [17] [18] [19] A United States occupation lasted eight years between 1916 and 1924, and a subsequent calm and prosperous six-year period under Horacio Vásquez Lajara was followed by the dictatorship of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo until 1961. A civil war in 1965, the country's last, was ended by U.S. military occupation and was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer, 1966–1978. Since then, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy [7] and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time since 1996. Danilo Medina, the Dominican Republic's current president, succeeded Fernandez in 2012, winning 51% of the electoral vote over his opponent ex-president Hipólito Mejía. [20]

The Dominican Republic has the ninth-largest economy in Latin America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region. [21] [22] Over the last two decades, the Dominican Republic has had one of the fastest-growing economies in the Americas – with an average real GDP growth rate of 5.4% between 1992 and 2014. [23] GDP growth in 2014 and 2015 reached 7.3 and 7.0%, respectively, the highest in the Western Hemisphere. [23] In the first half of 2016 the Dominican economy grew 7.4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. [24] Recent growth has been driven by construction, manufacturing, tourism, and mining. The country is the site of the second largest gold mine in the world, the Pueblo Viejo mine. [25] [26] Private consumption has been strong, as a result of low inflation (under 1% on average in 2015), job creation, as well as high level of remittances.

The Dominican Republic is the most visited destination in the Caribbean. The year-round golf courses are major attractions. [27] A geographically diverse nation, the Dominican Republic is home to both the Caribbean's tallest mountain peak, Pico Duarte, and the Caribbean's largest lake and point of lowest elevation, Lake Enriquillo. [28] The island has an average temperature of 26 °C (78.8 °F) and great climatic and biological diversity. [27] The country is also the site of the first cathedral, castle, monastery, and fortress built in the Americas, located in Santo Domingo's Colonial Zone, a World Heritage Site. [29] [30] Music and sport are of great importance in the Dominican culture, with Merengue and Bachata as the national dance and music, and baseball as the favorite sport. [3]

Names and etymology

For most of its history, up until independence, the country was known as Santo Domingo [31]—the name of its present capital and patron saint, Saint Dominic—and continued to be commonly known as such in English until the early 20th century. [32] The residents were called Dominicanos (Dominicans), which is the adjective form of "Domingo", and the revolutionaries named their newly independent country La República Dominicana.

In the national anthem of the Dominican Republic ( Himno Nacional) the term "Dominican" does not appear. The author of its lyrics, Emilio Prud'Homme, consistently uses the poetic term Quisqueyanos, that is, "Quisqueyans". The word "Quisqueya" derives from a native tongue of the Taino Indians and means "Mother of all Lands". It is often used in songs as another name for the country. The name of the country is often shortened to "the D.R." [33]

Other Languages
armãneashti: Republica Dominicanã
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Дамініканская Рэспубліка
Bikol Central: Dominikanang Republika
Chavacano de Zamboanga: República Dominicana
davvisámegiella: Dominikána dásseváldi
Esperanto: Domingo
Fiji Hindi: Dominican Republic
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: डोमिनिकन गणराज्य
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Dominica Khiung-fò-koet
hornjoserbsce: Dominikanska republika
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ডোমিনিকান প্রজাতন্ত্র
Bahasa Indonesia: Republik Dominika
interlingua: Republica Dominican
Interlingue: Republica Dominican
Kreyòl ayisyen: Dominikani
latviešu: Dominikāna
Lëtzebuergesch: Dominikanesch Republik
Livvinkarjala: Dominikanan Tazavaldu
مازِرونی: دومینیکن
Bahasa Melayu: Republik Dominika
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dominica Gê̤ṳng-huò-guók
Dorerin Naoero: Ripubrikin Dominika
Norfuk / Pitkern: Dominikan Repablik
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Dominika Respublikasi
پنجابی: ڈومینیکن
Plattdüütsch: Dominikaansche Republiek
polski: Dominikana
qırımtatarca: Dominikan Cumhuriyeti
Runa Simi: Duminikana
Simple English: Dominican Republic
slovenščina: Dominikanska republika
ślůnski: Důmińikana
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Dominikanska Republika
Basa Sunda: Républik Dominika
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: دومىنىكان جۇمھۇرىيەتى
Tiếng Việt: Cộng hòa Dominica
Volapük: Sandominän
吴语: 多米尼加
粵語: 多明尼加
中文: 多明尼加