Domestic violence

Domestic violence
Purple ribbon.svg
A purple ribbon to promote awareness of domestic violence
Classification and external resources
ICD-X85-Y09
article/805546
Domestic violence
D017579

Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation. It may be termed intimate partner violence when committed by a spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner, and can take place in heterosexual or same-sex relationships, or between former spouses or partners. Domestic violence can also involve violence against children, parents, or the elderly. It takes a number of forms, including physical, verbal, emotional, economic, religious, reproductive, and sexual abuse, which can range from subtle, coercive forms to marital rape and to violent physical abuse such as choking, beating, female genital mutilation, and acid throwing that results in disfigurement or death. Domestic murders include stoning, bride burning, honor killings, and dowry deaths.

Globally, the victims of domestic violence are overwhelmingly women, and women tend to experience more severe forms of violence.[1][2] They are also likelier than men to use intimate partner violence in self-defense.[3] In some countries, domestic violence is often seen as justified, particularly in cases of actual or suspected infidelity on the part of the woman, and is legally permitted. Research has established that there exists a direct and significant correlation between a country's level of gender equality and rates of domestic violence, where countries with less gender equality experience higher rates of domestic violence.[4] Domestic violence is among the most underreported crimes worldwide for both men and women.[5][6] Due to social stigmas regarding male victimization, men face an increased likelihood of being overlooked by healthcare providers.[7][8][9][10]

Domestic violence often occurs when the abuser believes that abuse is an entitlement, acceptable, justified, or unlikely to be reported. It may produce an intergenerational cycle of abuse in children and other family members, who may feel that such violence is acceptable or condoned. Many people do not recognize themselves as abusers or victims because they may consider their experiences as family conflicts that got out of control.[11] Awareness, perception, definition and documentation of domestic violence differs widely from country to country. Domestic violence often happens in the context of forced or child marriage.[12]

In abusive relationships, there may be a cycle of abuse during which tensions rise and an act of violence is committed, followed by a period of reconciliation and calm. Victims of domestic violence may be trapped in domestic violent situations through isolation, power and control, traumatic bonding to the abuser,[13] cultural acceptance, lack of financial resources, fear, shame, or to protect children. As a result of abuse, victims may experience physical disabilities, dysregulated aggression, chronic health problems, mental illness, limited finances, and poor ability to create healthy relationships. Victims may experience severe psychological disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Children who live in a household with violence often show psychological problems from an early age, such as avoidance, hypervigilance to threats, and dysregulated aggression which may contribute to vicarious traumatization.[14]

Etymology and definitions

The first known use of the term domestic violence in a modern context, meaning violence in the home, was in an address to the Parliament of the United Kingdom by Jack Ashley in 1973.[15][16] The term previously referred primarily to civil unrest, violence from within a country as opposed to violence perpetrated by a foreign power.[17][18][nb 1]

Traditionally, domestic violence (DV) was mostly associated with physical violence. Terms such as wife abuse, wife beating, and wife battering were used, but have declined in popularity due to efforts to include unmarried partners, abuse other than physical, female perpetrators, and same-sex relationships.[nb 2] Domestic violence is now commonly defined broadly to include "all acts of physical, sexual, psychological or economic violence"[23] that may be committed by a family member or intimate partner.[23][24][25]

The term intimate partner violence is often used synonymously with domestic abuse or domestic violence,[26] but it specifically refers to violence occurring within a couple relationship (i.e., marriage, cohabitation, or non-cohabitating intimate partners).[27] To these, the World Health Organization (WHO) adds controlling behaviors as a form of abuse.[28] Intimate partner violence has been observed in opposite and same-sex relationships,[29] and in the former instance by both men against women and women against men.[30] Family violence is a broader term, often used to include child abuse, elder abuse, and other violent acts between family members.[26][31][32]

In 1993, The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women defined domestic violence as:

Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation.[33]

Other Languages
العربية: عنف أسري
azərbaycanca: Ailə daxili şiddət
Bân-lâm-gú: Ka-têng pō-le̍k
беларуская: Хатні гвалт
български: Домашно насилие
한국어: 가정폭력
македонски: Семејно насилство
Bahasa Melayu: Keganasan rumah tangga
Nederlands: Huiselijk geweld
Simple English: Domestic violence
slovenščina: Nasilje v družini
српски / srpski: Насиље у породици
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nasilje u porodici
Tiếng Việt: Bạo hành gia đình
中文: 家庭暴力