Diabetes mellitus type 2 Synonyms Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), adult-onset diabetes  Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes  Pronunciation Specialty Endocrinology Symptoms , Increased thirst , unexplained frequent urination , weight loss increased hunger  Complications , Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state , diabetic ketoacidosis , heart disease , strokes , diabetic retinopathy , kidney failure amputations    Usual onset Middle or older age  Duration Long term  Causes , lack of exercise, Obesity genetics   Diagnostic method Blood test  Prevention Maintaining normal weight, , eating properly exercising  Treatment , Dietary changes , insulin, metformin bariatric surgery     Prognosis 10 year shorter life expectancy  Frequency 392 million (2015)  Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term that is characterized by metabolic disorder , high blood sugar , and relative lack of insulin resistance . insulin Common symptoms include  , increased thirst , and unexplained frequent urination . weight loss Symptoms may also include  , feeling tired, and sores that do not heal. increased hunger Often symptoms come on slowly.  Long-term complications from high blood sugar include  , heart disease , strokes which can result in diabetic retinopathy , blindness , and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to kidney failure . amputations The sudden onset of  may occur; however, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is uncommon. ketoacidosis  
Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of
and lack of exercise. obesity Some people are more  at risk than others. genetically Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of  , with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes and diabetes mellitus type 1 . gestational diabetes In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an  induced loss of insulin-producing autoimmune in the beta cells . pancreas  Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as  , fasting plasma glucose , or oral glucose tolerance test (A1C). glycated hemoglobin 
Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by staying a normal weight,
regularly, and eating properly. exercising Treatment involves exercise and  . dietary changes If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication  is typically recommended. metformin  Many people may eventually also require insulin injections.  In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills.   often improves diabetes in those who are obese. Bariatric surgery  
Rates of type 2 diabetes have increased markedly since 1960 in parallel with obesity.
As of 2015 there were approximately 392 million people diagnosed with the disease compared to around 30 million in 1985.   Typically it begins in middle or older age,  although rates of type 2 diabetes are increasing in young people.   Type 2 diabetes is associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy.  Diabetes was one of the first diseases described.  The importance of insulin in the disease was determined in the 1920s.  
Signs and symptoms
Overview of the most significant symptoms of diabetes.
The classic symptoms of diabetes are
(frequent urination), polyuria (increased thirst), polydipsia (increased hunger), and polyphagia . weight loss Other symptoms that are commonly present at diagnosis include a history of  , blurred vision , itchiness , recurrent peripheral neuropathy , and vaginal infections . fatigue Many people, however, have no symptoms during the first few years and are diagnosed on routine testing.  A small number of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus can develop a  (a condition of very high blood sugar associated with a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state and decreased level of consciousness ). low blood pressure
Type 2 diabetes is typically a chronic disease associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy.
This is partly due to a number of complications with which it is associated, including: two to four times the risk of  , including cardiovascular disease and ischemic heart disease ; a 20-fold increase in lower limb stroke , and increased rates of amputations . hospitalizations In the developed world, and increasingly elsewhere, type 2 diabetes is the largest cause of nontraumatic  and blindness . kidney failure It has also been associated with an increased risk of  and cognitive dysfunction through disease processes such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease . vascular dementia Other complications include  , acanthosis nigricans , and frequent infections. sexual dysfunction