Demonstration (political)

Monday demonstrations in East Germany (1989-1991) helped to bring down the Berlin Wall.
Demonstration in Canada against oil tankers, 1970
Greece, 2013: a working-class political protest calling for the boycott of a bookshop after an employee was fired, allegedly for her labor-rights political activism
Stockholm, 2015: protesters demonstrate against the city's new drastic plans for the Slussen area and interchange

A demonstration is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause or people partaking in a protest against a cause of concern; it often consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers. Compare mass meeting.

Actions such as blockades and sit-ins may also be referred to as demonstrations. Demonstrations can be nonviolent or violent (usually referred to by participants as "militant"), or can begin as nonviolent and turn violent dependent on circumstances. Sometimes riot police or other forms of law enforcement become involved. In some cases this may be in order to try to prevent the protest from taking place at all. In other cases it may be to prevent clashes between rival groups, or to prevent a demonstration from spreading and turning into a riot.

The term has been in use since the mid-19th century, as was the term "monster meeting", which was coined initially with reference to the huge assemblies of protesters inspired by Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847) in Ireland.[1] Demonstrations are a form of activism, usually taking the form of a public gathering of people in a rally or walking in a march. Thus the opinion is demonstrated to be significant by gathering in a crowd associated with that opinion.

Demonstrations can promote a viewpoint (either positive or negative) regarding a public issue, especially relating to a perceived grievance or social injustice. A demonstration is usually considered more successful if more people participate.

Historian Eric Hobsbawm wrote of demonstrations:

Next to sex, the activity combining bodily experience and intense emotion to the highest degree is the participation in a mass demonstration at a time of great public exaltation. Unlike sex, which is essentially individual, it is by its nature collective… like sex it implies some physical action—marching, chanting slogans, singing—through which the merger of the individual in the mass, which is the essence of the collective experience, finds expression.[2]


During the American Civil Rights Movement and the March on Washington, leaders marched from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial, August 28, 1963.
Video of a demonstration in Argentina to commemorate the 1976 coup d'état.

There are many types of demonstrations, including a variety of elements. These may include:

  • Marches, in which a parade demonstrate while moving along a set route.
  • Rallies, in which people gather to listen to speakers or musicians.
  • Picketing, in which people surround an area (normally an employer).
  • Sit-ins, in which demonstrators occupy an area, sometimes for a stated period but sometimes indefinitely, until they feel their issue has been addressed, or they are otherwise convinced or forced to leave.
  • Nudity, in which they protest naked - here the antagonist may give in before the demonstration happens to avoid embarrassment.

Demonstrations are sometimes spontaneous gatherings, but are also utilized as a tactical choice by movements. They often form part of a larger campaign of nonviolent resistance, often also called civil resistance. Demonstrations are generally staged in public, but private demonstrations are certainly possible, especially if the demonstrators wish to influence the opinions of a small or very specific group of people. Demonstrations are usually physical gatherings, but virtual or online demonstrations are certainly possible.

Topics of demonstrations often deal with political, economic, and social issues. Particularly with controversial issues, sometimes groups of people opposed to the aims of a demonstration may themselves launch a counter-demonstration with the aim of opposing the demonstrators and presenting their view. Clashes between demonstrators and counter-demonstrators may turn violent.

Government-organized demonstrations are demonstrations which are organized by a government. The Islamic Republic of Iran,[3][4] the People's Republic of China,[5] Republic of Cuba,[6] the Soviet Union[7] and Argentina,[8] among other nations, have had government-organized demonstrations.

Other Languages
العربية: تظاهر
aragonés: Manifestación
asturianu: Manifestación
беларуская: Мітынг
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Мітынг
català: Manifestació
Deutsch: Demonstration
español: Manifestación
Esperanto: Manifestacio
euskara: Manifestazio
فارسی: تظاهرات
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italiano: Manifestazione
עברית: הפגנה
Bahasa Melayu: Tunjuk perasaan
Nederlands: Betoging
日本語: デモ活動
norsk nynorsk: Demonstrasjon
occitan: Manifestacion
polski: Demonstracja
português: Manifestação
română: Manifestație
Simple English: Demonstration
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Demonstracija
svenska: Demonstration
тоҷикӣ: Митинг
українська: Демонстрація
Tiếng Việt: Biểu tình
粵語: 示威
中文: 示威