December

This article is about the month. For other uses, see December (disambiguation).
"Dec." redirects here. For other uses, see Dec.
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December is the twelfth and final month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars. It is the seventh and last month to have the length of 31 days.

December, from the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry

December got its name from the Latin word decem (meaning ten) because it was originally the tenth month of the year in the Roman calendar, which began in March. The winter days following December were not included as part of any month. Later, the months of January and February were created out of the monthless period and added to the beginning of the calendar, but December retained its name. [1]

In Ancient Rome, one of the four Agonalia, this day in honor of Sol Indiges was held on December 11, as was Septimontium. Dies Natalis was held on of the temple of Tellus on December 13, Consualia was held on December 15, Saturnalia was held December 17–23, Opiconsivia held on December 19, Divalia on December 21, Larentalia on December 23, and the Dies Natalis of Sol Invictus was held on December 25. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

The Anglo-Saxons referred to December/January as Ġēolamonaþ (modern English: " Yule month"). The French Republican Calendar contained December within the months of Frimaire and Nivôse.

Astronomy

December contains the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, the day with the fewest daylight hours, and the summer solstice in the Southern Hemisphere, the day with the most daylight hours (excluding polar regions in both cases). December in the Northern Hemisphere is the seasonal equivalent to June in the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa. In the Northern hemisphere, the beginning of the astronomical winter is traditionally 21 December or the date of the solstice.

Meteor showers occurring in December are the Andromedids (September 25 – December 6, peaking around November 9), the Canis-Minorids (December 4 - December 15, peaking around December 10-11), the Coma Berenicids (December 12 to December 23, peaking around December 16), the Delta Cancrids (December 14 to February 14, the main shower from January 1 to January 24, peaking on January 17), the Geminids (December 13-14), the Monocerotids (December 7 to December 20, peaking on December 9. This shower can also start in November), the Phoenicids (November 29 to December 9, with a peak occurring around 5/6 December), the Quadrantids (typically a January shower but can also start in December), the Sigma Hydrids (December 4-15), and the Ursids (December 17-to December 25/26, peaking around December 22).

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Desember
Alemannisch: Dezember
አማርኛ: ዲሴምበር
Ænglisc: Gēolmōnaþ
Аҧсшәа: Ҧхынҷкәын
العربية: ديسمبر
aragonés: Aviento
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܟܢܘܢ ܐ
armãneashti: Andreu
arpetan: Dècembro
অসমীয়া: ডিচেম্বৰ
asturianu: Avientu
Avañe'ẽ: Jasypakõi
авар: Декабр
azərbaycanca: Dekabr
বাংলা: ডিসেম্বর
Bahasa Banjar: Disimbir
Bân-lâm-gú: 12 goe̍h
беларуская: Снежань
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сьнежань
भोजपुरी: दिसंबर
Bikol Central: Desyembre
български: Декември
Boarisch: Dezemba
bosanski: Decembar
brezhoneg: Kerzu
català: Desembre
Чӑвашла: Раштав уйăхĕ
Cebuano: Disyembre
čeština: Prosinec
chiTumbuka: Disembala
corsu: Dicembre
Cymraeg: Rhagfyr
dansk: December
Deutsch: Dezember
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޑިސެމްބަރު
dolnoserbski: Zymski
eesti: Detsember
Ελληνικά: Δεκέμβριος
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Dicèmber
эрзянь: Ацамков
español: Diciembre
Esperanto: Decembro
estremeñu: Diziembri
euskara: Abendu
eʋegbe: Dzome
فارسی: دسامبر
Fiji Hindi: December
føroyskt: Desember
français: Décembre
Frysk: Desimber
furlan: Dicembar
Gaeilge: Mí na Nollag
Gagauz: Kırım ay
Gàidhlig: An Dùbhlachd
galego: Decembro
贛語: 十二月
ગુજરાતી: ડિસેમ્બર
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌾𐌹𐌿𐌻𐌴𐌹𐍃
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: 12-ngie̍t
хальмг: Бар сар
한국어: 12월
Hawaiʻi: Kēkēmapa
Հայերեն: Դեկտեմբեր
हिन्दी: दिसम्बर
hornjoserbsce: December
hrvatski: Prosinac
Igbo: Disemba
Ilokano: Disiembre
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ডিসেম্বর
Bahasa Indonesia: Desember
interlingua: Decembre
Interlingue: Decembre
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᑎᓯᒻᐳᕆ
Ирон: Декабрь
isiXhosa: Eyomnga
íslenska: Desember
italiano: Dicembre
עברית: דצמבר
Basa Jawa: Dhésèmber
kalaallisut: Decemberi
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಡಿಸೆಂಬರ್
Kapampangan: Disiembri
ქართული: დეკემბერი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: ڈیٚسَمبَر
kaszëbsczi: Gòdnik
қазақша: Желтоқсан
kernowek: Mis Kevardhu
Kinyarwanda: Ukuboza
Kiswahili: Desemba
Kreyòl ayisyen: Desanm
Kurdî: Berfanbar
Кыргызча: Декабрь
кырык мары: Декабрь
Ladino: Disiembre
лакку: Декабрь
лезги: Декабрь
ລາວ: ທັນວາ
latgaļu: Zīmys mieness
Latina: December
latviešu: Decembris
Lëtzebuergesch: Dezember
lietuvių: Gruodis
Ligure: Dexembre
Limburgs: December
Livvinkarjala: Talvikuu
lumbaart: Dicember
magyar: December
मैथिली: दिसम्बर
македонски: Декември
Malagasy: Desambra
മലയാളം: ഡിസംബർ
Malti: Diċembru
Māori: Hakihea
მარგალური: ქირსეთუთა
مصرى: ديسمبر
Bahasa Melayu: Disember
Baso Minangkabau: Desember
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: 12 nguŏk
мокшень: Кучкаков
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဒီဇင်ဘာ
Nederlands: December
Nedersaksies: December
नेपाली: डिसेम्बर
नेपाल भाषा: डिसेम्बर
日本語: 12月
Napulitano: Dicembre
нохчийн: Декабрь
Nordfriisk: Deetsember
Norfuk / Pitkern: Disemba
norsk bokmål: Desember
norsk nynorsk: Desember
Nouormand: Dézembre
Novial: Desembre
occitan: Decembre
олык марий: Теле (тылзе)
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଡିସେମ୍ବର
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Dekabr
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਦਸੰਬਰ
پنجابی: دسمبر
پښتو: ډيسمبر
Перем Коми: Декаб
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ខែធ្នូ
Piemontèis: Dzèmber
Tok Pisin: Disemba
Plattdüütsch: Dezember
polski: Grudzień
português: Dezembro
Qaraqalpaqsha: Dekabr
qırımtatarca: Dekabr
Ripoarisch: Dezemmber
română: Decembrie
русиньскый: Децембер
русский: Декабрь
саха тыла: Ахсынньы
sámegiella: Juovlamánnu
Gagana Samoa: Tesema
संस्कृतम्: दिसम्बर
sardu: Nadale
Scots: December
Sesotho sa Leboa: Manthole
shqip: Dhjetori
sicilianu: Dicèmmiru
Simple English: December
سنڌي: ڊسمبر
SiSwati: ÍNgongóni
slovenčina: December
slovenščina: December
ślůnski: Grudźyń
Soomaaliga: Diseembar
کوردیی ناوەندی: کانوونی یەکەم
српски / srpski: Децембар
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Decembar
Basa Sunda: Désémber
suomi: Joulukuu
svenska: December
Tagalog: Disyembre
Taqbaylit: Dujember
tarandíne: Decèmmre
татарча/tatarça: Декабрь
తెలుగు: డిసెంబర్
tetun: Dezembru
тоҷикӣ: Декабр
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎥᏍᎩᏱ
Türkçe: Aralık
Türkmençe: Dekabr
удмурт: Толсур
українська: Грудень
اردو: دسمبر
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: كۈنەك
vèneto: Disenbre
vepsän kel’: Tal'vku
Tiếng Việt: Tháng mười hai
Volapük: Dekul
Võro: Joulukuu
West-Vlams: December
Winaray: Disyembre
Wolof: Disambar
Xitsonga: N'wendzamhala
ייִדיש: דעצעמבער
Yorùbá: Oṣù Kejìlá
粵語: 12月
Zazaki: Kanun
žemaitėška: Groudis
中文: 12月