Czech Republic

Czech Republic

Česká republika  (Czech)
Motto: "Pravda vítězí" (Czech)
"Truth prevails"
Location of the  Czech Republic  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]
Location of the  Czech Republic  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]

Location of the Czech Republic
and largest city
50°05′N 14°28′E / 50°05′N 14°28′E / 50.083; 14.467
Official languageCzech[1]
Officially recognised languages[2][3]
Ethnic groups
  • 44.7% undeclared
  • 34.5% non-religious
  • 10.5% Catholic
  • 2.1% other Christians
  • 0.7% other religions
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
• President
Miloš Zeman
Andrej Babiš
Chamber of Deputies
Establishment history
• Duchy of Bohemia
(1002-1806 Part of the Holy Roman Empire )
c. 870
• Kingdom of Bohemia
(1815-1866 Part of the German Confederation )
• Czechoslovakia
(Independence from
28 October 1918
1 January 1969
• Czech Republic became independent
1 January 1993
1 May 2004
• Total
78,866 km2 (30,450 sq mi) (115th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
10,610,947 Increase[7] (84th)
• 2011 census
• Density
134/km2 (347.1/sq mi) (87th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$417 billion[9] (50th)
• Per capita
$39,337[9] (39th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$264 billion[9] (49th)
• Per capita
$24,938[9] (41st)
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 25.0[10]
low · 5th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.888[11]
very high · 27th
CurrencyCzech koruna (CZK)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+420b
Patron saintSt. Wenceslaus
ISO 3166 codeCZ
Internet TLD.czc
  1. The question is rhetorical, implying "those places where my homeland lies".
  2. Code 42 was shared with Slovakia until 1997.
  3. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

The Czech Republic (k -/ (About this soundlisten);[12] Czech: Česká republika [ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpublɪka] (About this soundlisten)),[13] also known by its short-form name, Czechia[14] (ə/ (About this soundlisten); Czech: Česko [ˈtʃɛsko] (About this soundlisten)), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.[15] The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants; its capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen. The Czech Republic is a member of the European Union (EU), NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, and the Council of Europe.

It is a developed country[16] with an advanced,[17] high income[18] export-oriented social market economy based in services, manufacturing and innovation. The UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development.[19] The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index.[20] It ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world,[21] while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.

The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia,[22] Moravia, and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as part of the Holy Roman Empire,[23][24] becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Besides Bohemia itself, the king of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, he had a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor, and Prague was the imperial seat in periods between the 14th and 17th century. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church.

Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary. The Protestant Bohemian Revolt (1618–20) against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, and also adopted a policy of gradual Germanization. This contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed[25][26] and still continues.[27][28] With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, which was formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I.

Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period.[29] However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic; Czechoslovakia was liberated in 1945 by the armies of the Soviet Union and the United States. Three million German-speakers, most of the population, were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004.


Historical affiliations

The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii". The current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which ultimately comes from the Czech word Čech.[30][31][32] The name comes from the Slavic tribe (Czech: Češi, Čechové) and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain. The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people; kinsman", thus making it cognate to the Czech word člověk (a person).[33]

The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia (Čechy) in the west, Moravia (Morava) in the east, and Czech Silesia (Slezsko; the smaller, south-eastern part of historical Silesia, most of which is located within modern Poland) in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown, Czechia [34] and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas. When the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country.

After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lacked a common English short name. The Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs recommended the English name Czechia in 1993, and the Czech government approved Czechia as the official short name in 2016.

Other Languages
Acèh: Cèkia
Адыгэбзэ: Чехиэ
адыгабзэ: Чехие
Afrikaans: Tsjeggië
Alemannisch: Tschechien
አማርኛ: ቸኪያ
Ænglisc: Cecland
Аҧсшәа: Чехиа
العربية: التشيك
aragonés: Republica Checa
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܬܫܝܟ
armãneashti: Cehia
asturianu: Chequia
Avañe'ẽ: Chekía
авар: Чехия
Aymar aru: Chexya Ripublika
azərbaycanca: Çexiya
Bân-lâm-gú: Chesko
башҡортса: Чехия
беларуская: Чэхія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Чэхія
भोजपुरी: चेक रिपब्लिक
Bikol Central: Tsekya
Bislama: Czechia
български: Чехия
Boarisch: Tschechei
བོད་ཡིག: ཅེ་ཁེ།
bosanski: Češka
brezhoneg: Republik Tchek
буряад: Чехи
čeština: Česko
Chamoru: Chekia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Chequia
chiShona: Czechia
chiTumbuka: Czechia
corsu: Cecchìa
dansk: Tjekkiet
davvisámegiella: Čeahkka
Deitsch: Tschecherei
Deutsch: Tschechien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޗެކް ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާ
dolnoserbski: Česka
eesti: Tšehhi
Ελληνικά: Τσεχία
Esperanto: Ĉeĥio
estremeñu: Repúbrica Checa
euskara: Txekia
eʋegbe: Czechia
فارسی: جمهوری چک
Fiji Hindi: Czechia
føroyskt: Kekkia
Frysk: Tsjechje
Fulfulde: Cekiya
Gagauz: Çehiya
Gàidhlig: An t-Seic
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: झेक प्रजासत्ताक
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Chhia̍p-khiet
한국어: 체코
Hausa: Kazech
Hawaiʻi: Tiekia
հայերեն: Չեխիա
hornjoserbsce: Čěska
hrvatski: Češka
Ido: Chekia
Igbo: Chekia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: চেক প্রজাতন্ত্র
Bahasa Indonesia: Ceko
interlingua: Republica Chec
Interlingue: Tchekia
Iñupiak: Czechia
Ирон: Чехи
isiZulu: ITsheki
íslenska: Tékkland
italiano: Repubblica Ceca
עברית: צ'כיה
Basa Jawa: Républik Céko
Kabɩyɛ: Cɛɛkɩ
kalaallisut: Tjekkia
къарачай-малкъар: Чехия
ქართული: ჩეხეთი
kaszëbsczi: Czeskô Repùblika
қазақша: Чехия
kernowek: Pow Chek
Kinyarwanda: Cekiya
Kiswahili: Ucheki
коми: Чехия
Kreyòl ayisyen: Tchèki
kurdî: Çekya
Кыргызча: Чехия
лакку: Чехия
لۊری شومالی: کۊمٱرٱ ڤولات چک
latgaļu: Čekeja
Latina: Cechia
latviešu: Čehija
Lëtzebuergesch: Tschechesch Republik
лезги: Чехия
lietuvių: Čekija
Limburgs: Tsjechië
lingála: Shekia
Lingua Franca Nova: Txesco
Livvinkarjala: Čeehii
lumbaart: Cechia
magyar: Csehország
македонски: Чешка
Malagasy: Tsekia
Malti: Ċekja
Māori: Tīekia
მარგალური: ჩეხეთი
مصرى: تشيكيا
مازِرونی: چک (کشور)
Bahasa Melayu: Republik Czech
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ciĕk-káik
мокшень: Чехмастор
монгол: Чех
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ချက်သမ္မတနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Tsiekia
Nederlands: Tsjechië
Nedersaksies: Tsjechie
नेपाल भाषा: चेक गणतन्त्र
日本語: チェコ
Napulitano: Repubbreca Ceca
нохчийн: Чехи
Nordfriisk: Tschechien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Chekya
norsk: Tsjekkia
norsk nynorsk: Tsjekkia
Nouormand: Tchéquie
Novial: Chekia
олык марий: Чехий
Oromoo: Cheekiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Chexiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਚੈੱਕ ਗਣਰਾਜ
Pälzisch: Tschechien
Pangasinan: Jhekia
پنجابی: چیک لوکراج
Papiamentu: Czechia
Patois: Chekia
Перем Коми: Ческо
Piemontèis: Repùblica Ceca
Tok Pisin: Sek Ripablik
Plattdüütsch: Tschechien
polski: Czechy
Ποντιακά: Τσεχία
português: República Checa
Qaraqalpaqsha: Shexiya
qırımtatarca: Çehiya
reo tahiti: Tieti
română: Cehia
Romani: Chexiya
rumantsch: Tschechia
Runa Simi: Chiksuyu
русиньскый: Чесько
русский: Чехия
саха тыла: Чехия
Gagana Samoa: Ripapelika o Sieki
संस्कृतम्: जेक् रिपब्लिक्
Seeltersk: Tschechien
sicilianu: Ripùbblica Ceca
Simple English: Czech Republic
SiSwati: Shekhi
slovenčina: Česko
slovenščina: Češka
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Чєшьско
ślůnski: Czesko Republika
Soomaaliga: Jamhuuriyadda Jek
Sranantongo: Tsjekikondre
српски / srpski: Чешка
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Češka
Basa Sunda: Céko
suomi: Tšekki
svenska: Tjeckien
Taqbaylit: Tagduda tačekit
tarandíne: Repubbleche Ceche
татарча/tatarça: Чехия
тоҷикӣ: Чехия
Tsetsêhestâhese: Czechia
Türkmençe: Çehiýa
удмурт: Чехия
українська: Чехія
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: چېخ جۇمھۇرىيەتى
Vahcuengh: Ciethaek
vepsän kel’: Čehanma
Tiếng Việt: Cộng hòa Séc
Volapük: Tsyegän
walon: Tchekeye
文言: 捷克
West-Vlams: Tsjechië
吴语: 捷克
Xitsonga: Czech Republic
ייִדיש: טשעכיי
粵語: 捷克
Zazaki: Çekya
Zeêuws: Tsjehhië
žemaitėška: Čekėjė
中文: 捷克