Cyprus

Republic of Cyprus
Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία  ( Greek)
Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti  ( Turkish)
Anthem:  Ὕμνος εἰς τὴν Ἐλευθερίαν [a] (Greek Cypriot)
"Hymn to Liberty"
Location of Cyprus (pictured lower right), showing the Republic of Cyprus in darker green and the self-declared republic of Northern Cyprus in brighter green, with the rest of the European Union shown in faded green
Location of Cyprus (pictured lower right), showing the Republic of Cyprus in darker green and the self-declared republic of Northern Cyprus in brighter green, with the rest of the European Union shown in faded green
Capital
and largest city
Nicosia  
35°10′N 33°22′E / 35°10′N 33°22′E / 35.167; 33.367
Official languages
Minority languages
Vernaculars
Ethnic groups
Demonym Cypriot
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
•  President
Nicos Anastasiades
Vacant [b]
Demetris Syllouris
Legislature House of Representatives
Independence from the United Kingdom
19 February 1959
• Independence proclaimed
16 August 1960
1 October 1960
1 May 2004
Area
• Total [c]
9,251 km2 (3,572 sq mi) ( 168th)
• Water (%)
9
Population
• 2013 estimate
1,141,166 [c] [3] ( 158th)
• 2011 census
838,897 [d] [4]
• Density
123.4 [c] [5]/km2 (319.6/sq mi) ( 82nd)
GDP ( PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$29.666 billion [6] ( 126th)
• Per capita
$34,970 [6] ( 35th)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$19.810 billion [6] ( 114th)
• Per capita
$23,352 [6] ( 33rd)
Gini (2015) Positive decrease 33.6 [7]
medium
HDI (2015) Increase 0.856 [8]
very high ·  33rd
Currency Euro ( EUR)
Time zone EET ( UTC+2)
• Summer ( DST)
EEST ( UTC+3)
Drives on the left
Calling code +357
ISO 3166 code CY
Internet TLD .cy [e]

Cyprus ( s/; Greek: Κύπρος, translit. Kýpros IPA:  [ˈcipros]; Turkish: Kıbrıs IPA:  [ˈkɯbɾɯs]), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Greek: Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία, translit. Kypriakí Demokratía; Turkish: Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean. It is located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, and southeast of Greece.

The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia, and Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world. [9] Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC. As a strategic location in the Middle East, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians, Egyptians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great. Subsequent rule by Ptolemaic Egypt, the Classical and Eastern Roman Empire, Arab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty and the Venetians, was followed by over three centuries of Ottoman rule between 1571 and 1878 ( de jure until 1914). [10]

Cyprus was placed under British administration based on the Cyprus Convention in 1878 and formally annexed by Britain in 1914. While Turkish Cypriots made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot leaders and Turkey in the 1950s. Turkish leaders for a period advocated the annexation of Cyprus to Turkey as Cyprus was considered an "extension of Anatolia" by them; while, since the 19th century, [11] [12] the majority Greek Cypriot population and its Orthodox church had been pursuing union with Greece, which became a Greek national policy in the 1950s. [13] Following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960. [14] In 1963, the 11-year intercommunal violence between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots started, which displaced more than 25,000 Turkish Cypriots [15] [16] and brought the end of Turkish Cypriot representation in the republic. On 15 July 1974, a coup d'état was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists [17] [18] and elements of the Greek military junta [19] in an attempt at enosis, the incorporation of Cyprus into Greece. This action precipitated the Turkish invasion of Cyprus on 20 July, [20] which led to the capture of the present-day territory of Northern Cyprus in the following month, after a ceasefire collapsed, and the displacement of over 150,000 Greek Cypriots [21] [22] and 50,000 Turkish Cypriots. [23] A separate Turkish Cypriot state in the north was established by unilateral declaration in 1983; the move was widely condemned by the international community, with Turkey alone recognizing the new state. These events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute.

The Republic of Cyprus has de jure sovereignty over the entire island, including its territorial waters and exclusive economic zone, with the exception of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which remain under British control according to the London and Zürich Agreements. However, the Republic of Cyprus is de facto partitioned into two main parts: the area under the effective control of the Republic, located in the south and west, and comprising about 59% of the island's area; and the north, [24] administered by the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, covering about 36% of the island's area. Another nearly 4% of the island's area is covered by the UN buffer zone. The international community considers the northern part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law, amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union. [30]

Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean. [31] [32] [33] With an advanced, [34] high-income economy and a very high Human Development Index, [35] [36] the Republic of Cyprus has been a member of the Commonwealth since 1961 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. [37] On 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone.

Etymology

A copper mine in Cyprus. In antiquity, Cyprus was a major source of copper.

The earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean Greek 𐀓𐀠𐀪𐀍, ku-pi-ri-jo, [38] meaning "Cypriot" (Greek: Κύπριος), written in Linear B syllabic script. [39] The classical Greek form of the name is Κύπρος (Kýpros).

The etymology of the name is unknown. Suggestions include:

Through overseas trade, the island has given its name to the Classical Latin word for copper through the phrase aes Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus", later shortened to Cuprum. [40]

The standard demonym relating to Cyprus or its people or culture is Cypriot. The terms Cypriote and Cyprian are also used, though less frequently.

Other Languages
Acèh: Siprus
Afrikaans: Siprus
Alemannisch: Republik Zypern
አማርኛ: ቆጵሮስ
Ænglisc: Cipros
Аҧсшәа: Ҟыбрыс
العربية: قبرص
aragonés: Chipre
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܩܘܦܪܘܣ
armãneashti: Chipro
arpetan: Cipro (payis)
অসমীয়া: চাইপ্ৰাছ
asturianu: Xipre
Avañe'ẽ: Kípuro
авар: Кипр
azərbaycanca: Kipr
বাংলা: সাইপ্রাস
Bân-lâm-gú: Ku-pí-lō͘
беларуская: Кіпр
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кіпр
भोजपुरी: साइप्रस
Bikol Central: Siprus
Bislama: Saepras
български: Република Кипър
Boarisch: Republik Zypern
bosanski: Kipar
буряад: Кипр
català: Xipre
Cebuano: Tsipre
čeština: Kypr
chiShona: Cyprus
chiTumbuka: Cyprus
corsu: Cipru
Cymraeg: Cyprus
dansk: Cypern
dolnoserbski: Cypern
eesti: Küpros
Ελληνικά: Κύπρος
español: Chipre
Esperanto: Kipro
estremeñu: Chipri
euskara: Zipre
eʋegbe: Cyprus
فارسی: قبرس
Fiji Hindi: Cyprus
føroyskt: Kýpros
français: Chypre (pays)
Frysk: Syprus
Fulfulde: Kibris
furlan: Cipri
Gaeilge: An Chipir
Gàidhlig: Cìopras
galego: Chipre
ગુજરાતી: સાયપ્રસ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: सायप्रस
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Cyprus
한국어: 키프로스
Hausa: Cyprus
Hawaiʻi: Kupelo
Հայերեն: Կիպրոս
हिन्दी: साइप्रस
hornjoserbsce: Cypernska
hrvatski: Cipar
Ido: Chipro
Ilokano: Cyprus
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: সাইপ্রাস
Bahasa Indonesia: Siprus
interlingua: Cypro
Interlingue: Cypria
Ирон: Кипр
íslenska: Kýpur
italiano: Cipro
עברית: קפריסין
Basa Jawa: Siprus
kalaallisut: Cyperni
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಿಪ್ರಸ್
Kapampangan: Sipre
къарачай-малкъар: Кипр
ქართული: კვიპროსი
kaszëbsczi: Cyper
қазақша: Кипр
kernowek: Kobros
Kinyarwanda: Shipure
Kiswahili: Kupro
коми: Кипр
Kongo: Kipros
Kreyòl ayisyen: Chip
Kurdî: Kîpros
Кыргызча: Кипр
лезги: Кипр
لۊری شومالی: قئبرئس
latgaļu: Kipra
Latina: Cyprus
latviešu: Kipra
Lëtzebuergesch: Zypern
lietuvių: Kipras
Ligure: Çipro
Limburgs: Cyprus
Livvinkarjala: Kipru
lumbaart: Cipro
मैथिली: साइप्रस
македонски: Кипар
മലയാളം: സൈപ്രസ്
Malti: Ċipru
Māori: Haipara
मराठी: सायप्रस
მარგალური: კვიპროსი
مصرى: قبرص
مازِرونی: قبرس
Bahasa Melayu: Cyprus
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gṳ̆-bī-lô
мокшень: Кипра
монгол: Кипр
Dorerin Naoero: Taiprus
Nederlands: Cyprus
Nedersaksies: Syprus
नेपाली: साइप्रस
नेपाल भाषा: साइप्रस
日本語: キプロス
Napulitano: Cipro
нохчийн: Кипр
Nordfriisk: Zypern
Norfuk / Pitkern: Siipris
norsk nynorsk: Republikken Kypros
Nouormand: Chypre
Novial: Kiprus
occitan: Chipre
олык марий: Кипр
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ସାଇପ୍ରସ
Oromoo: Saayippires
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kipr Respublikasi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਾਇਪ੍ਰਸ
पालि: सायप्रस
Pangasinan: Kiprô
پنجابی: قبرص
Papiamentu: Chipre
Patois: Saipros
Piemontèis: Cipro
Tok Pisin: Saipras
Plattdüütsch: Republiek Zypern
polski: Cypr
Ποντιακά: Κύπρος
português: Chipre
Qaraqalpaqsha: Kipr
qırımtatarca: Qıbrız Cumhuriyeti
română: Cipru
rumantsch: Cipra
Runa Simi: Kipru
русиньскый: Ціпрус
саха тыла: Кипр
sámegiella: Kypros
Gagana Samoa: Kuperu
संस्कृतम्: सायप्रस
sardu: Cipro
Scots: Cyprus
Seeltersk: Zypern
shqip: Qiproja
sicilianu: Cipru
Simple English: Republic of Cyprus
SiSwati: ISayiphro
slovenčina: Cyprus
slovenščina: Ciper
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Кѷпръ
ślůnski: Cypr
Soomaaliga: Jasiirada Qabrus
کوردی: قوبرس
Sranantongo: Sipruskondre
српски / srpski: Кипар
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Cipar
Basa Sunda: Siprus
svenska: Cypern
Tagalog: Tsipre
Taqbaylit: Qubrus (tamurt)
tarandíne: Cipre
татарча/tatarça: Кипр Республикасы
తెలుగు: సైప్రస్
tetun: Xipre
тоҷикӣ: Кипр
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏌᎢᏆᏍ
Türkmençe: Kipr Respublikasy
удмурт: Кипр
українська: Кіпр
اردو: قبرص
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سىپرۇس
vèneto: Sipro
vepsän kel’: Kipr
Tiếng Việt: Cộng hòa Síp
Volapük: Sipreän
Võro: Küprüs
文言: 賽普勒斯
West-Vlams: Cyprus
Winaray: Tsipre
Wolof: Ciipër
吴语: 塞浦路斯
Xitsonga: Cyprus
ייִדיש: ציפערן
Yorùbá: Kíprù
粵語: 塞浦路斯
Zeêuws: Cyprus
žemaitėška: Kėpros
中文: 賽普勒斯
डोटेली: साइप्रस