Cuba

Republic of Cuba

República de Cuba  (Spanish)
Motto: 
"¡Patria o Muerte, Venceremos!" (Spanish)
"Homeland or Death, we shall overcome!"[1]
Anthem: La Bayamesa
Bayamo Song [2]
CUB orthographic.svg
Location of Cuba
Capital
and largest city
Havana
23°8′N 82°23′W / 23°8′N 82°23′W / 23.133; -82.383
Official languagesSpanish
Ethnic groups
(2012)[3]
Demonym(s)Cuban
GovernmentUnitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic[4]
Raúl Castro
• President
Miguel Díaz-Canel
Salvador Valdés Mesa
José Machado Ventura
Esteban Lazo Hernández
LegislatureNational Assembly of People's Power
Independence
10 October 1868
24 February 1895
• Recognized (handed over from Spain to the United States)
10 December 1898
• Republic declared (independence from United States)
20 May 1902
26 July 1953 – 1 January 1959
• Current constitution
24 February 1976
Area
• Total
109,884 km2 (42,426 sq mi) (104th)
• Water (%)
0.94
Population
• 2018 census
Decrease 11,209,628[5] (82nd)
• Density
102.1/km2 (264.4/sq mi) (114th)
GDP (PPP)2015 estimate
• Total
US$ 254.865 billion[6]
• Per capita
US$ 22,237[6][7]
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
US$ 96.851 billion[8] (63rd)
• Per capita
US$ 8,433[9] (76th)
Gini (2000)38.0[10]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.777[11]
high · 73rd
Currency (CUC)
Time zoneUTC−5 (CST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC−4 (CDT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+53
ISO 3166 codeCU
Internet TLDwww.cubagob.cu
  1. From 1993 to 2004, the United States dollar was used alongside the peso, until the dollar was replaced by the convertible peso.

Cuba (ə/ (About this soundlisten); Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkuβa]), officially the Republic of Cuba (Spanish: About this soundRepública de Cuba ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometers (42,800 sq mi) (109,884 square kilometers (42,426 sq mi) without the territorial waters). The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometers (40,543 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.[12]

The territory that is now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonization in the 15th century.[13] From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902. As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952.[14] Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro.[15][16][17] Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba. The country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, and a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of a few extant Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment.[18]

Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America.[19] It is a multiethnic country whose people, culture and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.

Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. It has currently one of the world's only planned economies, and its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco, coffee and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world.[20] It also ranks highly in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education.[21][22] It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF.[23]

Etymology

Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation [is] unknown".[24] The exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as 'where fertile land is abundant' (cubao),[25] or 'great place' (coabana).[26]

Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.[27][28]

Other Languages
Acèh: Kuba
Адыгэбзэ: Кубэ
Afrikaans: Kuba
Alemannisch: Kuba
አማርኛ: ኩባ
Ænglisc: Cūba
العربية: كوبا
aragonés: Cuba
arpetan: Cuba
asturianu: Cuba
Avañe'ẽ: Kúva
Aymar aru: Kuba
azərbaycanca: Kuba
تۆرکجه: کوبا
bamanankan: Kuba
বাংলা: কিউবা
Bân-lâm-gú: Cuba
башҡортса: Куба
беларуская: Куба
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Куба
भोजपुरी: क्यूबा
Bikol Central: Kuba
български: Куба
Boarisch: Cuba
བོད་ཡིག: ཀུ་བ།
bosanski: Kuba
brezhoneg: Kuba
буряад: Куба
català: Cuba
Чӑвашла: Куба
Cebuano: Cuba
čeština: Kuba
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Cuba
chiShona: Cuba
Cymraeg: Ciwba
dansk: Cuba
davvisámegiella: Cuba
Deitsch: Kubaa
Deutsch: Kuba
ދިވެހިބަސް: ކިއުބާ
dolnoserbski: Kuba
डोटेली: क्युबा
eesti: Kuuba
Ελληνικά: Κούβα
эрзянь: Куба
español: Cuba
Esperanto: Kubo
estremeñu: Cuba
euskara: Kuba
eʋegbe: Cuba
فارسی: کوبا
Fiji Hindi: Cuba
føroyskt: Kuba
français: Cuba
Frysk: Kuba
Gaeilge: Cúba
Gaelg: Yn Choobey
Gagauz: Kuba
Gàidhlig: Cùba
galego: Cuba
ГӀалгӀай: Куба
贛語: 古巴
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: क्युबा
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Cuba
한국어: 쿠바
Hausa: Cuba
հայերեն: Կուբա
हिन्दी: क्यूबा
hornjoserbsce: Kuba
hrvatski: Kuba
Ido: Kuba
Ilokano: Kuba
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: কিউবা
Bahasa Indonesia: Kuba
interlingua: Cuba
Interlingue: Cuba
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᖂᐹ/quupaa
Ирон: Кубæ
íslenska: Kúba
italiano: Cuba
עברית: קובה
Jawa: Kuba
Kabɩyɛ: Kuubaa
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕ್ಯೂಬಾ
Kapampangan: Cuba
ქართული: კუბა
қазақша: Куба
kernowek: Kuba
Kinyarwanda: Kiba
Kiswahili: Kuba
коми: Куба
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kiba
kurdî: Kûba
Кыргызча: Куба
кырык мары: Куба
Ladino: Kuba
لۊری شومالی: کۊبا
Latina: Cuba
latviešu: Kuba
Lëtzebuergesch: Kuba
лезги: Куба
lietuvių: Kuba
Ligure: Cuba
Limburgs: Cuba
lingála: Kuba
Lingua Franca Nova: Cuba
Livvinkarjala: Kuba
la .lojban.: kubas
lumbaart: Cuba
magyar: Kuba
मैथिली: क्युबा
македонски: Куба
Malagasy: Kioba
മലയാളം: ക്യൂബ
Malti: Kuba
मराठी: क्यूबा
მარგალური: კუბა
مصرى: كوبا
مازِرونی: کوبا
Bahasa Melayu: Cuba
Minangkabau: Kuba
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Cuba
Mirandés: Cuba
монгол: Куба
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကျူးဘားနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Kiuba
Nederlands: Cuba (land)
Nedersaksies: Kuba
नेपाली: क्युबा
नेपाल भाषा: क्युबा
日本語: キューバ
нохчийн: Куба
Nordfriisk: Kuuba
Norfuk / Pitkern: Kyuuba
norsk: Cuba
norsk nynorsk: Cuba
Novial: Kuba
occitan: Cuba
олык марий: Куба
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: କ୍ୟୁବା
Oromoo: Kuubaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kuba
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕਿਊਬਾ
पालि: क्यूबा
Pangasinan: Cuba
پنجابی: کیوبا
Papiamentu: Cuba
پښتو: کیوبا
Patois: Kyuuba
ភាសាខ្មែរ: គុយបា
Piemontèis: Cuba
Plattdüütsch: Kuba
polski: Kuba
português: Cuba
Qaraqalpaqsha: Kuba
qırımtatarca: Kuba
română: Cuba
romani čhib: Kuba
Runa Simi: Kuwa
русиньскый: Куба
русский: Куба
саха тыла: Куба (дойду)
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱠᱤᱣᱵᱟ
संस्कृतम्: क्यूबा
sardu: Cuba
Scots: Cuba
Seeltersk: Kuba
shqip: Kuba
sicilianu: Cubba
සිංහල: කියුබාව
Simple English: Cuba
سنڌي: ڪيوبا
SiSwati: IKhuyubha
slovenčina: Kuba
slovenščina: Kuba
ślůnski: Kuba
Soomaaliga: Kuuba
کوردی: کووبا
Sranantongo: Cuba
српски / srpski: Куба
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kuba
Sunda: Kuba
suomi: Kuuba
svenska: Kuba
Tagalog: Cuba
தமிழ்: கியூபா
Taqbaylit: Kuba
tarandíne: Cuba
татарча/tatarça: Куба
తెలుగు: క్యూబా
tetun: Kuba
тоҷикӣ: Куба
Türkçe: Küba
Türkmençe: Kuba
Twi: Cuba
українська: Куба
اردو: کیوبا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: كۇبا
Vahcuengh: Gujbah
vèneto: Cuba
vepsän kel’: Kuba
Tiếng Việt: Cuba
Volapük: Kubeän
Võro: Kuuba
walon: Couba
文言: 古巴
Winaray: Cuba
Wolof: Kubaa
吴语: 古巴
ייִדיש: קובא
Yorùbá: Kúbà
粵語: 古巴
Zazaki: Kuba
Zeêuws: Cuba
žemaitėška: Kuba
中文: 古巴