Croatia

Republic of Croatia
Republika Hrvatska  (Croatian)[a]
Anthem: "Lijepa naša domovino"
(English: "Our Beautiful Homeland")
Location of  Croatia  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)
Location of  Croatia  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Capital
and largest city
Zagreb
45°48′N 16°0′E / 45°48′N 16°0′E / 45.800; 16.000
Official languagesCroatian
Writing systemLatin
Ethnic groups (2011[1])
Religion (2011)
Demonym
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović
Andrej Plenković
Gordan Jandroković
Miroslav Šeparović
LegislatureSabor
Establishment
6th century[2][3][4]
• Duchy
7th century
• Kingdom
925
1102
• Joined Habsburg Monarchy
1 January 1527
• Secession from
Austria-Hungary
29 October 1918
4 December 1918
25 June 1991
1 July 2013
Area
• Total
56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi) (124th)
• Water (%)
1.09
Population
• 2017 estimate
4,154,200[5] (129th)
• 2011 census
4,284,889[6] (128th)
• Density
75.8/km2 (196.3/sq mi) (126th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$106.548 billion[7] (84th)
• Per capita
$25,807[7] (56th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$61.056 billion[7] (81st)
• Per capita
$14,788[7] (57th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 29.7[8]
low · 17th
HDI (2015)Increase 0.827[9]
very high · 45th
CurrencyKuna (HRK)
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST)
CEST (UTC+2)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (CE)
Drives on theright
Calling code+385
Patron saintSt. Joseph[10]
ISO 3166 codeHR
Internet TLD

Croatia (ə/ (About this sound listen), AY-shə; Croatian: Hrvatska [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]), officially the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Republika Hrvatska, About this sound listen )[b] is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. Its capital Zagreb forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles) and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics.

The Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir. Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, and in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year. The Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully for four years following the declaration.

Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a very high standard of living. It is a member of the European Union (EU), the United Nations (UN), the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization (WTO), and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has constantly invested in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.

Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world. The state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, and a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.

Etymology

The Branimir Inscription is the oldest preserved monument containing an inscription defining a Croatian medieval ruler as a duke of Croats

The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Compare DUX CRUATORVM [sic] ("Duke of the Croats") attested in the Branimir inscription. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from proposed Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xŭrvatŭ (*Xъrvatъ) which possibly comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-.[11] The word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait- which is the native name of Arachosia.

The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe.[12] The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ ("Zvonimir, Croatian king").[13]

The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim.[14] The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.[15]

Other Languages
Acèh: Kroasia
Адыгэбзэ: Хоруатиэ
адыгабзэ: Хорватие
Afrikaans: Kroasië
Akan: Croatia
Alemannisch: Kroatien
አማርኛ: ክሮኤሽያ
Ænglisc: Croatia
Аҧсшәа: Хорватиа
العربية: كرواتيا
aragonés: Croacia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܩܪܘܐܛܝܐ
armãneashti: Croația
arpetan: Croacie
asturianu: Croacia
Avañe'ẽ: Kyoasia
azərbaycanca: Xorvatiya
تۆرکجه: کروواسی
Bân-lâm-gú: Croatia
башҡортса: Хорватия
беларуская: Харватыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Харватыя
भोजपुरी: क्रोएशिया
Bikol Central: Kroasya
Bislama: Croatia
български: Хърватия
Boarisch: Krowozien
བོད་ཡིག: ཁུརོ་ཤི་ཡ།
bosanski: Hrvatska
brezhoneg: Kroatia
буряад: Хорвати
català: Croàcia
Чӑвашла: Хорвати
Cebuano: Krowasya
čeština: Chorvatsko
Chamoru: Croacia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Croacia
chiShona: Croatia
chiTumbuka: Croatia
corsu: Croazia
Cymraeg: Croatia
dansk: Kroatien
davvisámegiella: Kroatia
Deitsch: Kroaati
Deutsch: Kroatien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ކުރޮއޭޝިއާ
dolnoserbski: Chorwatska
eesti: Horvaatia
Ελληνικά: Κροατία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Cruàsia
español: Croacia
Esperanto: Kroatio
estremeñu: Croacia
euskara: Kroazia
eʋegbe: Croatia
فارسی: کرواسی
Fiji Hindi: Croatia
føroyskt: Kroatia
français: Croatie
Frysk: Kroaasje
Fulfulde: Korowaasiya
furlan: Cravuazie
Gaeilge: An Chróit
Gaelg: Yn Chroit
Gagauz: Kroațiya
galego: Croacia
贛語: 克罗地亚
ગુજરાતી: ક્રોએશિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: क्रोएशिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Croatia
한국어: 크로아티아
Hausa: Kroatiya
Hawaiʻi: Koloatia
Հայերեն: Խորվաթիա
हिन्दी: क्रोएशिया
hornjoserbsce: Chorwatska
hrvatski: Hrvatska
Ido: Kroatia
Igbo: Kroatia
Ilokano: Kroasia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ক্রোয়েশিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Kroasia
interlingua: Croatia
Interlingue: Croatia
Ирон: Хорвати
isiZulu: IKrowati
íslenska: Króatía
italiano: Croazia
עברית: קרואטיה
Basa Jawa: Kroasia
kalaallisut: Kroatia
Kapampangan: Croasya
къарачай-малкъар: Хорватия
ქართული: ხორვატია
kaszëbsczi: Chòrwackô
қазақша: Хорватия
kernowek: Kroati
Kinyarwanda: Korowatiya
Kirundi: Croacia
Kiswahili: Kroatia
Kongo: Kroatia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kroasi
kurdî: Kroatya
Кыргызча: Хорватия
Ladino: Kroasia
лезги: Хорватия
لۊری شومالی: کوروڤاسی
latgaļu: Horvateja
Latina: Croatia
latviešu: Horvātija
Lëtzebuergesch: Kroatien
lietuvių: Kroatija
Ligure: Croaçia
Limburgs: Kroatië
lingála: Kroasia
Livvinkarjala: Horvatii
la .lojban.: xrvatskas
lumbaart: Cruazia
मैथिली: क्रोएसिया
македонски: Хрватска
Malagasy: Krôasia
മലയാളം: ക്രൊയേഷ്യ
Malti: Kroazja
Māori: Koroātia
მარგალური: ხორვატია
مصرى: كرواتيا
مازِرونی: کرواسی
Bahasa Melayu: Croatia
Baso Minangkabau: Kroasia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Croatia
мокшень: Хорватие
монгол: Хорват
Nāhuatl: Croacia
Dorerin Naoero: Kroaitsiya
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Croatia
Nederlands: Kroatië
Nedersaksies: Kroasië
नेपाली: क्रोएसिया
नेपाल भाषा: क्रोएसिया
日本語: クロアチア
Napulitano: Croazia
нохчийн: Хорвати
Nordfriisk: Kroatien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Kroaysha
norsk: Kroatia
norsk nynorsk: Kroatia
Nouormand: Croatie
Novial: Kroatia
occitan: Croàcia
олык марий: Хорватий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: କ୍ରୋଏସିଆ
Oromoo: Kirooshiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Xorvatiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕ੍ਰੋਏਸ਼ੀਆ
Pangasinan: Kroasiya
پنجابی: کروشیا
Papiamentu: Kroatia
Patois: Kruoyesha
Перем Коми: Хӧрватска
Picard: Croachie
Piemontèis: Croassia
Tok Pisin: Krowesia
Plattdüütsch: Kroatien
polski: Chorwacja
Ποντιακά: Κροατία
português: Croácia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Xorvatiya
qırımtatarca: Hırvatistan
reo tahiti: Toroātia
română: Croația
rumantsch: Croazia
Runa Simi: Hurwatsuyu
русиньскый: Хорватія
русский: Хорватия
саха тыла: Хорватия
Gagana Samoa: Croatia
संस्कृतम्: क्रोएशिया
Sängö: Kroasïi
sardu: Croàtzia
Scots: Croatie
Seeltersk: Kroatien
Sesotho: Kroatia
shqip: Kroacia
sicilianu: Croazzia
Simple English: Croatia
SiSwati: IKhuroshiya
slovenčina: Chorvátsko
slovenščina: Hrvaška
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Хръватьска
ślůnski: Chorwacyjo
Soomaaliga: Kuruweshiya
کوردی: کرواتیا
Sranantongo: Krvatkondre
српски / srpski: Хрватска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hrvatska
Basa Sunda: Kroasia
suomi: Kroatia
svenska: Kroatien
Tagalog: Croatia
Taqbaylit: Kruwatya
tarandíne: Croazie
татарча/tatarça: Хорватия
తెలుగు: క్రొయేషియా
tetun: Kroásia
тоҷикӣ: Хорватия
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎧᎶᎡᏏᎠ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Croatia
Türkçe: Hırvatistan
Türkmençe: Horwatiýa
удмурт: Хорватия
українська: Хорватія
اردو: کرویئشا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: كرودىيە
Vahcuengh: Gwzlozdiya
vèneto: Croàsia
vepsän kel’: Horvatii
Tiếng Việt: Croatia
Volapük: Kroasän
Võro: Horvaatia
walon: Crowaceye
文言: 克羅地亞
West-Vlams: Kroatië
Winaray: Kroasya
Wolof: Korwaasi
吴语: 克罗地亚
Xitsonga: Croatia
ייִדיש: קראאטיע
Yorùbá: Kroatíà
粵語: 克羅地亞
Zeêuws: Kroaotië
žemaitėška: Kruoatėjė
中文: 克罗地亚
डोटेली: क्रोएसिया
Kabɩyɛ: Krowasii
Lingua Franca Nova: Corvatsca