Criminal law

Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime. It proscribes conduct perceived as threatening, harmful, or otherwise endangering to the property, health, safety, and moral welfare of people inclusive of one's self. Most criminal law is established by statute, which is to say that the laws are enacted by a legislature. It includes the punishment of people who violate these laws. Criminal law varies according to jurisdiction, and differs from civil law, where emphasis is more on dispute resolution and victim compensation than on punishment. Criminal procedure is a formalized official activity that authenticates the fact of commission of a crime and authorizes punitive treatment of the offender. These are at best core definitions; they do not comprehend all legal systems, all stages in the development of a legal system, or all elements within a given legal system.

History

The first civilizations generally did not distinguish between civil law and criminal law. The first written codes of law were designed by the Sumerians. Around 2100–2050 BC Ur-Nammu, the Neo-Sumerian king of Ur, enacted the oldest written legal code whose text has been discovered: the Code of Ur-Nammu[1] although an earlier code of Urukagina of Lagash ( 2380–2360 BC ) is also known to have existed. Another important early code was the Code Hammurabi, which formed the core of Babylonian law. Only fragments of the early criminal laws of Ancient Greece have survived, e.g. those of Solon and Draco.[2]

The Old Bailey in London (in 1808) was the venue for more than 100,000 criminal trials between 1674 and 1834, including all death penalty cases.

In Roman law, Gaius's Commentaries on the Twelve Tables also conflated the civil and criminal aspects, treating theft (furtum) as a tort. Assault and violent robbery were analogized to trespass as to property. Breach of such laws created an obligation of law or vinculum juris discharged by payment of monetary compensation or damages. The criminal law of imperial Rome is collected in Books 47–48 of the Digest.[3] After the revival of Roman law in the 12th century, sixth-century Roman classifications and jurisprudence provided the foundations of the distinction between criminal and civil law in European law from then until the present time.[4]

The first signs of the modern distinction between crimes and civil matters emerged during the Norman Invasion of England.[5] The special notion of criminal penalty, at least concerning Europe, arose in Spanish Late Scholasticism (see Alfonso de Castro), when the theological notion of God's penalty (poena aeterna) that was inflicted solely for a guilty mind, became transfused into canon law first and, finally, to secular criminal law.[6] The development of the state dispensing justice in a court clearly emerged in the eighteenth century when European countries began maintaining police services. From this point, criminal law had formalized the mechanisms for enforcement, which allowed for its development as a discernible entity.

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Strafrecht
العربية: قانون جنائي
asturianu: Derechu penal
azərbaycanca: Cinayət hüququ
bosanski: Krivično pravo
català: Dret penal
čeština: Trestní právo
dansk: Strafferet
Deutsch: Strafrecht
Ελληνικά: Ποινικό Δίκαιο
español: Derecho penal
Esperanto: Puna juro
français: Droit pénal
한국어: 형법
हिन्दी: दण्डविधि
hrvatski: Kazneno pravo
Bahasa Indonesia: Hukum pidana
italiano: Diritto penale
Limburgs: Sjtroafrech
magyar: Büntetőjog
македонски: Кривично право
Bahasa Melayu: Undang-undang jenayah
Nederlands: Strafrecht
日本語: 刑法
polski: Prawo karne
português: Direito penal
română: Drept penal
Simple English: Criminal law
slovenčina: Trestné právo
slovenščina: Kazensko pravo
српски / srpski: Кривично право
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kazneno pravo
svenska: Straffrätt
Türkçe: Ceza hukuku
українська: Кримінальне право
Tiếng Việt: Luật hình sự
粵語: 刑法
中文: 刑法