Crimes against humanity
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population. The first prosecution for crimes against humanity took place at the
Unlike war crimes, crimes against humanity can be committed during peace or war.
 They are not isolated or sporadic events, but are part either of a government policy (although the perpetrators need not identify themselves with this policy) or of a wide practice of atrocities tolerated or condoned by a government or a
The term "crimes against humanity" is potentially
There were several bilateral treaties in 1814 that foreshadowed the multilateral treaty of
The multilateral Declaration of the Powers, on the Abolition of the Slave Trade, of 8 February 1815 (Which also formed
ACT, No. XV. of the
The term "crimes against humanity" was used by George Washington Williams, in a pamphlet published in 1890, to describe the practices of Belgian King Leopold II's administration of the Congo.
 In treaty law, the term originated in the Second Hague Convention of 1899 preamble and was expanded in the Fourth Hague Convention of 1907 preamble and their respective regulations, which were concerned with the codification of new rules of
On May 24, 1915, the Allied Powers, Britain, France, and Russia, jointly issued a statement explicitly charging for the first time ever another government of committing "a crime against humanity". An excerpt from this joint statement reads:
In view of these new crimes of
Ottoman Empireagainst humanity and civilization, the Allied Governmentsannounce publicly to the Sublime Portethat they will hold personally responsible for these crimes all members of the Ottoman Government, as well as those of their agents who are implicated in such massacres. 
At the conclusion of the war, an international war crimes commission recommended the creation of a tribunal to try "violations of the laws of humanity". However, the US representative objected to references to "law of humanity" as being imprecise and insufficiently developed at that time and the concept was not pursued. 
In the aftermath of the
Murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, and other inhumane acts committed against any civilianpopulation, before or during the war, or persecutions on political, racial or religious grounds in execution of or in connection with any crime within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal, whether or not in violation of the domestic law of the country where perpetrated.  
In the Judgment of the International Military Tribunal for the Trial of German Major War Criminals it was also stated:
The Tribunal therefore cannot make a general declaration that the acts before 1939 were crimes against humanity within the meaning of the Charter, but from the beginning of the war in 1939 war crimes were committed on a vast scale, which were also crimes against humanity; and insofar as the inhumane acts charged in the Indictment, and committed after the beginning of the war, did not constitute war crimes, they were all committed in execution of, or in connection with, the aggressive war, and therefore constituted crimes against humanity. 
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trial, was convened to
The legal basis for the trial was established by the
In the Tokyo Trial, Crimes against Humanity (Class C) was not applied for any suspect.
A panel of eleven