Creole language

  • road sign in guadeloupe creole meaning slow down. children are playing here. the literal translation is "lift your foot [from the accelerator]. there are children playing here".

    a creole language,[1][2][3] or simply creole, is a stable natural language that develops from the simplifying and mixing of different languages into a new one within a fairly brief period of time: often, a pidgin evolved into a full-fledged language. while the concept is similar to that of a mixed or hybrid language, creoles are often characterized by a tendency to systematize their inherited grammar (e.g., by eliminating irregularities or regularizing the conjugation of otherwise irregular verbs). like any language, creoles are characterized by a consistent system of grammar, possess large stable vocabularies, and are acquired by children as their native language.[4] these three features distinguish a creole language from a pidgin.[5] creolistics, or creology, is the study of creole languages and, as such, is a subfield of linguistics. someone who engages in this study is called a creolist.

    the precise number of creole languages is not known, particularly as many are poorly attested or documented. about one hundred creole languages have arisen since 1500. these are predominantly based on european languages such as english and french[6] due to the european age of discovery and the atlantic slave trade that arose at that time.[7] with the improvements in ship-building and navigation, traders had to learn to communicate with people around the world, and the quickest way to do this was to develop a pidgin, or simplified language suited to the purpose; in turn, full creole languages developed from these pidgins. in addition to creoles that have european languages as their base, there are, for example, creoles based on arabic, chinese, and malay. the creole with the largest number of speakers is haitian creole, with almost ten million native speakers,[8] followed by tok pisin with about 4 million, most of whom are second-language speakers.

    the lexicon (or, roughly, the base or essential vocabulary – such as "say" but not "said, tell, told") of a creole language is largely supplied by the parent languages, particularly that of the most dominant group in the social context of the creole's construction. however, there are often clear phonetic and semantic shifts. on the other hand, the grammar that has evolved often has new or unique features that differ substantially from those of the parent languages.

  • overview
  • history
  • classification
  • creole genesis
  • recent studies
  • controversy
  • see also
  • references
  • bibliography
  • external links

Road sign in Guadeloupe Creole meaning Slow down. Children are playing here. The literal translation is "Lift your foot [from the accelerator]. There are children playing here".

A creole language,[1][2][3] or simply creole, is a stable natural language that develops from the simplifying and mixing of different languages into a new one within a fairly brief period of time: often, a pidgin evolved into a full-fledged language. While the concept is similar to that of a mixed or hybrid language, creoles are often characterized by a tendency to systematize their inherited grammar (e.g., by eliminating irregularities or regularizing the conjugation of otherwise irregular verbs). Like any language, creoles are characterized by a consistent system of grammar, possess large stable vocabularies, and are acquired by children as their native language.[4] These three features distinguish a creole language from a pidgin.[5] Creolistics, or creology, is the study of creole languages and, as such, is a subfield of linguistics. Someone who engages in this study is called a creolist.

The precise number of creole languages is not known, particularly as many are poorly attested or documented. About one hundred creole languages have arisen since 1500. These are predominantly based on European languages such as English and French[6] due to the European Age of Discovery and the Atlantic slave trade that arose at that time.[7] With the improvements in ship-building and navigation, traders had to learn to communicate with people around the world, and the quickest way to do this was to develop a pidgin, or simplified language suited to the purpose; in turn, full creole languages developed from these pidgins. In addition to creoles that have European languages as their base, there are, for example, creoles based on Arabic, Chinese, and Malay. The creole with the largest number of speakers is Haitian Creole, with almost ten million native speakers,[8] followed by Tok Pisin with about 4 million, most of whom are second-language speakers.

The lexicon (or, roughly, the base or essential vocabulary – such as "say" but not "said, tell, told") of a creole language is largely supplied by the parent languages, particularly that of the most dominant group in the social context of the creole's construction. However, there are often clear phonetic and semantic shifts. On the other hand, the grammar that has evolved often has new or unique features that differ substantially from those of the parent languages.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Kreools
Alemannisch: Kreolsprachen
العربية: لغة مولدة
asturianu: Llingua criolla
Bân-lâm-gú: Creole giân-gú
беларуская: Крэольскія мовы
български: Креолски език
brezhoneg: Yezhoù kreolek
čeština: Kreolština
Cymraeg: Creol
dansk: Kreolsprog
Deutsch: Kreolsprache
dolnoserbski: Kreolska rěc
eesti: Kreoolkeel
español: Lengua criolla
Esperanto: Kreola lingvo
euskara: Kreolera
فارسی: کریول
français: Créole
Gaeilge: Fásteanga
hornjoserbsce: Kreolska rěč
hrvatski: Kreolski jezici
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa kreol
interlingua: Lingua creol
íslenska: Kreólamál
italiano: Lingua creola
ქართული: კრეოლური ენა
Kiswahili: Krioli
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lang kreyòl
kriyòl gwiyannen: Kriyòl
lietuvių: Kreolų kalbos
Lingua Franca Nova: Creol
magyar: Kreol nyelv
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa campuran
Nederlands: Creoolse talen
Nedersaksies: Kreoolsproake
Nordfriisk: Kreoolspriak
norsk nynorsk: Kreolspråk
Piemontèis: Lenghe créole
Plattdüütsch: Kreoolspraak
português: Línguas crioulas
română: Limbă creolă
Simple English: Creole language
slovenščina: Kreolščina
српски / srpski: Креолски језици
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kreolski jezici
svenska: Kreolspråk
Türkçe: Kreolce
українська: Креольська мова
vèneto: Creolo
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Creole
粵語: 歸融話