County

A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,[1] in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French conté or cunté denoting a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of a count (earl) or a viscount.[2] The modern French is comté, and its equivalents in other languages are contea, contado, comtat, condado, Grafschaft, graafschap, Gau, etc. (cf. conte, comte, conde, Graf).

When the Normans conquered England, they brought the term with them. The Saxons had already established the districts that became the historic counties of England, calling them shires;[3] many county names derive from the name of the county town (county seat) with the word "shire" added on: for example, Gloucestershire and Worcestershire.[4]

The Anglo-Saxon terms "earl" and "earldom" were taken as equivalent to the continental terms "count" and "county" under the conquering Normans, and over time the two blended and became equivalent. Further, the later-imported term became a synonym for the native English word scir ([ʃiːr]) or, in Modern English, shire. Since a shire was an administrative division of the kingdom, the term "county" evolved to designate an administrative division of a federal state, as in Germany and the United States, or of a national government in most other modern uses.

In the United States and Canada, founded 600 years later[a] on the British traditions, counties are usually an administrative division set by convenient geographical demarcations, which in governance have certain officeholders (e.g., sheriffs and their departments) as a part of the state and provincial mechanisms, including geographically common court systems.[5]

A county may be further subdivided into districts, hundreds, townships or other administrative jurisdictions within the county. A county usually, but not always, contains cities, towns, townships, villages, or other municipal corporations, which in most cases are somewhat subordinate or dependent upon county governments. Depending on the nation, municipality, and local geography, municipalities may or may not be subject to direct or indirect county control—the functions of both levels are often consolidated into a city government when the area is densely populated.[b]

Outside English-speaking countries, an equivalent of the term "county" is often used to describe subnational jurisdictions that are structurally equivalent to counties in the relationship they have with their national government;[c] but which may not be administratively equivalent to counties in predominantly English-speaking countries.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: County
Ænglisc: Scīr
azərbaycanca: Şəhristan
беларуская: Графства
български: Графство
Boarisch: County
brezhoneg: Kontelezh
Cebuano: Kontado
čeština: Hrabství
Cymraeg: Sir
dansk: County
Deutsch: County
eesti: Maakond
Ελληνικά: Κομητεία
español: Condado
Esperanto: County
فارسی: شهرستان
français: Comitat
Gaelg: Coontae
galego: Condado
हिन्दी: काउण्टी
hrvatski: Grofovija
Ido: Komtio
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: কোন্ডাডো
íslenska: Sýsla
kurdî: Şaristan
Latina: Comitatus
latviešu: Grāfiste
Limburgs: Graofsjap
македонски: Грофовија
Bahasa Melayu: Kaunti
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gâing
Nederlands: County
日本語: カウンティ
нохчийн: Графство
Nordfriisk: County
occitan: Comtat
پنجابی: کاؤنٹی
Tok Pisin: Kaunti
Plattdüütsch: County
polski: Hrabstwo
português: Condado
română: Comitat
русский: Графство
Scots: Coonty
Simple English: County
српски / srpski: Грофовија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Grofovija
suomi: Piirikunta
svenska: County
Tagalog: Kondado
тоҷикӣ: Шаҳристон
Türkçe: Kontluk
українська: Графство
اردو: شہرستان
vèneto: Contea
Tiếng Việt: Hạt (hành chính)
文言:
吴语:
粵語:
中文: