Corsica

Collectivity of Corsica
Collectivité territoriale de Corse  (French)
Cullettività territuriale di Corsica  (Corsican)
Anthem: Dio vi salvi Regina (unofficial)
Location of Corsica within France
Location of Corsica within France
StatusFrench region
Capital
and largest city
Ajaccio[a]
Official languagesFrench
DemonymCorsican
Country French Republic
GovernmentSingle territorial collectivity of France
Emmanuel Macron
• President of the Executive Council
Gilles Simeoni (Pè a Corsica)
• President of the Corsican Assembly
Jean-Guy Talamoni (Pè a Corsica)
LegislatureCorsican Assembly
Single territorial collectivity
• NOTRe law
7 August 2015
• Introduction
1 January 2018
Area
• Total
8,680 km2 (3,350 sq mi)
Population
• 2017 census
330,000
GDP (nominal)2012 estimate
• Total
€9.74 billion
• Per capita
€30,423
CurrencyEuro (€) (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Calling code+33

Corsica (ə/; French: Corse [kɔʁs]; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced [ˈkorsiga] and [ˈkɔrsika] respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France. It is located southeast of the French mainland and west of the Italian Peninsula, with the nearest land mass being the Italian island of Sardinia to the immediate south. A single chain of mountains makes up two-thirds of the island.

While being part of Metropolitan France, Corsica is also designated as a territorial collectivity (collectivité territoriale) by law. As a territorial collectivity, Corsica enjoys a greater degree of autonomy than other French regions; for example, the Corsican Assembly is able to exercise limited executive powers.

The island formed a single department until it was split in 1975 into two historical departments: Haute-Corse (Upper Corsica) and Corse-du-Sud (Southern Corsica), with its regional capital in Ajaccio, the prefecture city of Corse-du-Sud. Bastia, the prefecture city of Haute-Corse, is the second largest settlement in Corsica. The two departments, and the region of Corsica, merged again into a single territorial collectivity in 2018.

After being ruled by the Republic of Genoa since 1284, Corsica was briefly an independent republic from 1755 until it was officially ceded by the Republic of Genoa to Louis XV as part of a pledge for debts in 1768. Due to Corsica's historical ties with the Italian peninsula, the island retains to this day many Italian cultural elements: the native tongue is recognised as a regional language by the French government. Corsica was ruled by various powers over the course of its history, but had several brief periods of self-government.

Napoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769 in the Corsican capital of Ajaccio. His ancestral home, Maison Bonaparte, is today a significant visitor attraction and museum.

History

Prehistory and antiquity

The medieval influence of Pisa in Corsica can be seen in the Romanesque-Pisan style of the Church of Aregno.

The origin of the name Corsica is subject to much debate and remains a mystery. To the Ancient Greeks it was known as Kalliste, Corsis, Cyrnos, Cernealis, or Cirné. Of these Cyrnos, Cernealis, or Cirné derive from the most ancient Greek name of the island, "Σειρηνούσσαι" ("Seirinoussai", meaning of the Sirens), the very same Sirens mentioned in Homer's Odyssey.

Corsica has been occupied continuously since the Mesolithic era. It acquired an indigenous population that was influential in the Mediterranean during its long prehistory.

After a brief occupation by the Carthaginians, colonization by the ancient Greeks, and an only slightly longer occupation by the Etruscans, it was incorporated by the Roman Republic at the end of the First Punic War and, with Sardinia, in 238 BC became a province of the Roman Republic.[1] The Romans, who built a colony in Aléria, considered Corsica as one of the most backward regions of the Roman world. The island produced sheep, honey, resin and wax, and exported many slaves, not well considered because of their fierce and rebellious character.[1] Moreover, it was known for its cheap wines, exported to Rome, and was used as a place of relegation, one of the most famous exiles being the Roman philosopher Seneca.[2] Administratively, the island was divided in pagi, which in the Middle Ages became the pievi, the basic administrative units of the island until 1768.[1] During the diffusion of Christianity, which arrived quite early from Rome and the Tuscan harbors, Corsica was home to many martyrs and saints: among them, the most important are Saint Devota and Saint Julia, both patrons of the island. Corsica was integrated into Roman Italy by Emperor Diocletian (r. 284-305).

Middle Ages and early-modern era

In the 5th century, the western half of the Roman Empire collapsed, and the island was invaded by the Vandals and the Ostrogoths.[1] Briefly recovered by the Byzantines, it soon became part of the Kingdom of the Lombards. This made it a dependency of the March of Tuscany, which used it as an outpost against the Saracens.[3] Pepin the Short, king of the Franks and Charlemagne's father, expelled the Lombards and nominally granted Corsica to Pope Stephen II.[3] In the first quarter of the 11th century, Pisa and Genoa together freed the island from the threat of Arab invasion.[3] After that, the island came under the influence of the republic of Pisa.[3] To this period belong the many polychrome churches which adorn the island, and Corsica also experienced a massive immigration from Tuscany, which gave to the island its present toponymy and rendered the language spoken in the northern two-thirds of the island very close to the Tuscan dialect.[3] Due to that, then began also the traditional division of Corsica in two parts, along the main chain of mountains roughly going from Calvi to Porto-Vecchio: the eastern Banda di dentro, or Cismonte, more populated, evolved and open to the commerce with Italy, and the western Banda di fuori, or Pomonte, almost deserted, wild and remote.[3]

The North African pirates frequently attacked Corsica, resulting in many Genoese towers being erected.

The crushing defeat experienced by Pisa in 1284 in the Battle of Meloria against Genoa had among its consequences the end of the Pisan rule and the beginning of the Genoese influence in Corsica:[3] this was contested initially by the King of Aragon, who in 1296 had received from the Pope the investiture over Sardinia and Corsica.[4] A popular revolution against this and the feudal lords, led by Sambucuccio d'Alando, got the aid of Genoa. After that, the Cismonte was ruled as a league of comuni and churches, after the Italian experience.[4] The following 150 years were a period of conflict, when the Genoese rule was contested by Aragon, the local lords, the comuni and the Pope: finally, in 1450 Genoa ceded the administration of the island to its main bank, the Bank of Saint George, which brought peace.[5]

In the 16th century, the island entered into the fight between Spain and France for the supremacy in Italy.[5] In 1553, a Franco-Ottoman fleet occupied Corsica, but the reaction of Spain and Genoa, led by Andrea Doria, reestablished the Genoese supremacy on the island, confirmed by the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis.[6] The unlucky protagonist of this episode was Sampiero di Bastelica, who would later come to be considered a hero of the island. Their power reinstated, the Genoese did not allow the Corsican nobility to share in the government of the island, and oppressed the inhabitants with a heavy tax burden: on the other hand, they introduced the chestnut tree on a large scale, improving the diet of the population, and built a chain of towers along the coast to defend Corsica from the attacks of the Barbary pirates from North Africa.[7] The period of peace lasted until 1729, when the refusal to pay taxes by a peasant sparked the general insurrection of the island against Genoa.[8]

Rise and annexation of the Corsican Republic

Seafront boulevard in Ajaccio, the island's capital and Napoleon I's birthplace

In 1729 the Corsican Revolution for independence from Genoa began, first led by Luiggi Giafferi and Giacinto Paoli, and later by Paoli's son, Pasquale Paoli. After 26 years of struggle against the Republic of Genoa (plus an ephemeral attempt to proclaim in 1736 an independent Kingdom of Corsica under the German adventurer Theodor von Neuhoff), the independent Corsican Republic was proclaimed in 1755 under the leadership of Pasquale Paoli and remained sovereign until 1769, when the island was conquered by France. The first Corsican Constitution was written in Italian (the language of culture in Corsica until the middle of the 19th century) by Paoli.

The Corsican Republic was unable to eject the Genoese from the major coastal fortresses (Calvi and Bonifacio). After the Corsican conquest of Capraia, a small island of the Tuscan Archipelago, in 1767, the Republic of Genoa, exhausted by forty years of fighting, decided to sell the island to France which, after its defeat in the Seven Years' War, was trying to reinforce its position in the Mediterranean. In 1768, with the Treaty of Versailles, the Genoese republic ceded all its rights on the island. After an initial successful resistance culminating with the victory at Borgo, the Corsican republic was crushed by a large French army led by the Count of Vaux at the Battle of Ponte Novu. This marked the end of Corsican sovereignty. Despite triggering the Corsican Crisis in Britain, whose government gave secret aid, no foreign military support came for the Corsicans. However, nationalist feelings still ran high. Despite the conquest, Corsica was not incorporated into the French state until 1789.

Following the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, Pasquale Paoli was able to return to Corsica from exile in Britain. In 1794, he invited British forces under Lord Hood to intervene to free Corsica from French rule. Anglo-Corsican forces drove the French from the island and established an Anglo-Corsican Kingdom. Following Spain's entry into the war, the British decided to withdraw from Corsica in 1796. Corsica returned to French rule.

19th century

Corsicans commemorating the anniversary of the birth of Napoleon

Despite being the birthplace of the Emperor, who had supported Paoli in his youth, the island was neglected by Napoleon's government.[9] In 1814, near the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Corsica was briefly occupied again by British troops. The Treaty of Bastia gave the British crown sovereignty over the island, but it was later repudiated by Lord Castlereagh who insisted that the island should be returned to a restored French monarchy.

After the restoration, the island was further neglected by the French state. Despite the presence of a middle class in Bastia and Ajaccio, Corsica remained an otherwise primitive place, whose economy consisted mainly of a subsistence agriculture, and whose population constituted a pastoral society, dominated by clans and the rules of vendetta. The code of vendetta required Corsicans to seek deadly revenge for offences against their family's honor. Between 1821 and 1852, no fewer than 4,300 murders were perpetrated in Corsica.[10] In this period a myth proved of interest as an historical fact by virtue of its being introduced by Herodotus and furthered by writers like Mérimée and Gregorovius, of Corsica as having been populated by Arcadians (Oenotrians and citizens of Phocaea), fierce and loyal people. During the first half of the century, the people of Corsica belonged still to the Italian cultural world: the bourgeoisie sent children to Pisa to study, official acts were enacted in Italian and most books were printed in Italian.[11] Moreover, many islanders sympathised with the national struggle which was taking place in nearby Italy in those years: several political refugees from the peninsula, like Niccolò Tommaseo, spent years in the island, while some Corsicans, like Count Leonetto Cipriani, took active part in the fights for Italian independence.

Despite all that, during those years the Corsicans began to feel a stronger and stronger attraction to France. The reasons for that are manifold: the knowledge of the French language, which thanks to the mandatory primary school started to penetrate among the local youth, the high prestige of French culture, the awareness of being part of a big, powerful state, the possibility of well-paid jobs as civil servants, both in the island, in the mainland and in the colonies, the prospect of serving the French army during the wars for the conquest of the colonial empire, the introduction of steamboats, which reduced the travel time between mainland France from the island drastically, and — last but not least — Napoleon himself, whose existence alone constituted an indissoluble link between France and Corsica. Thanks to all these factors by around 1870 Corsica had landed in the French cultural world.[11]

From the 19th century into the mid-20th century, Corsicans also grew closer to the French nation through participation in the French Empire. Compared to much of Metropolitan France, Corsica was poor and many Corsicans emigrated. While Corsicans emigrated globally, especially to many South American countries, many chose to move within the French Empire which acted as a conduit for emigration and eventual return, as many young Corsican men could find better job opportunities in the far corners of the Empire where many other French hesitated to go. In many parts of the Empire, Corsicans were strongly represented, such as in Saigon where in 1926 12% of European were from Corsica.[12] Across the French Empire, many Corsicans retained a sense of community by establishing organizations where they would meet regularly, keep one another informed of developments in Corsica, and come to one anothers’ aid in times of need.[13]

Modern Corsica

Monument to the French Resistance during WWII in Solaro (plaine orientale)

Corsica paid a high price for the French victory in the First World War: agriculture was disrupted by the years-long absence of almost all of the young workers, and the percentage of dead or wounded Corsicans in the conflict was double that of those from metropolitan France. Moreover, the protectionist policies of the French government, started in the 1880s and never stopped, had ruined the Corsican export of wine and olive oil, and forced many young Corsicans to emigrate to mainland France or to the Americas. As reaction to these conditions, a nationalist movement was born in the 1920s around the newspaper A Muvra, having as its objective the autonomy of the island from France. In the 1930s, many exponents of this movement became irredentist, seeing annexation of the island to fascist Italy as the only solution to its problems. Under Benito Mussolini annexation of Corsica had become one of the main goals of Italy's unification policy.

After the collapse of France to the German Wehrmacht in 1940, Corsica came under the rule of the Vichy French regime, which was collaborating with Nazi Germany.[14] In November 1942 the island, following the Anglo-American landings in North Africa was occupied by Italian and German forces. After the Italian armistice in September 1943, Italian and Free French Forces pushed the Germans out of the island, making Corsica the first French Department to be freed.[15] Subsequently, the US military established 17 airfields, nicknamed "USS Corsica", which served as bases for attacks on targets in German-occupied Italy.

Brando in the Haute-Corse department

During the May 1958 crisis, French paratroopers landed on Corsica on 24 May, garrisoning the island in a bloodless action called Opération Corse.[16]

Between the late fifties and the seventies, the project of building a nuclear polygon in the mines of Argentella, the immigration of 18,000 former settlers from Algeria ("Pieds-Noirs") in the eastern plains, and continuing chemical pollution (Fanghi Rossi) from mainland Italy increased tensions between the indigenous inhabitants and the French government. Tensions escalated until an armed police assault on a pieds-noirs-owned wine cellar in Aleria, occupied by Corsican nationalists on 23 August 1975. This marked the beginning of the armed nationalist struggle against the French government. Ever since, Corsican nationalism has been a feature of the island's politics, with calls for greater autonomy and protection for Corsican culture and the Corsican language. Periodic flare-ups of raids and killings culminated in the assassination of Prefect Claude Érignac in 1998.

In 2013, Corsica hosted the first three stages of the 100th Tour de France, which passed through the island for the first time in the event's 110-year history.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Korsika
Alemannisch: Korsika
አማርኛ: ኮርሲካ
Ænglisc: Corsica
العربية: كورسيكا
aragonés: Corcega
arpetan: Corse
asturianu: Córcega
Aymar aru: Corse suyu
azərbaycanca: Korsika
تۆرکجه: کورسیکا
বাংলা: কর্স
Bân-lâm-gú: Corse
беларуская: Корсіка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Корсыка
Bikol Central: Corsica
български: Корсика
Boarisch: Korsika
bosanski: Korzika
brezhoneg: Korsika
català: Còrsega
Чӑвашла: Корсика
Cebuano: Corse
čeština: Korsika
corsu: Corsica
Cymraeg: Corsica
dansk: Korsika
davvisámegiella: Korsika
Deutsch: Korsika
dolnoserbski: Korsika
eesti: Korsika
Ελληνικά: Κορσική
español: Córcega
Esperanto: Korsiko
estremeñu: Córcega
euskara: Korsika
فارسی: جزیره کرس
français: Corse
Frysk: Korsika
Gaeilge: An Chorsaic
Gagauz: Korsika
Gàidhlig: Corsaca
galego: Córsega
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Corsica
한국어: 코르시카
Hausa: Korsika
հայերեն: Կորսիկա
हिन्दी: कोर्सिका
hornjoserbsce: Korsika
hrvatski: Korzika
Ido: Korsika
Bahasa Indonesia: Korsika
interlingua: Region Corsica
Interlingue: Corsica
Ирон: Корсикæ
íslenska: Korsíka
italiano: Corsica
עברית: קורסיקה
Basa Jawa: Korsika
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕಾರ್ಸಿಕ
Kapampangan: Korsega
ქართული: კორსიკა
қазақша: Корсика
kernowek: Corsica
Kiswahili: Korsika
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kors
kurdî: Korsîka
Кыргызча: Корсика
لۊری شومالی: میناوه کرس
Latina: Corsica
latviešu: Korsika
Lëtzebuergesch: Korsika
lietuvių: Korsika
Ligure: Corsega
Limburgs: Corsica
Lingua Franca Nova: Corse
lumbaart: Còrsega
magyar: Korzika
македонски: Корзика
मराठी: कॉर्स
მარგალური: კორსიკა
مصرى: كورسيكا
Bahasa Melayu: Corse
Nederlands: Corsica
日本語: コルシカ島
Napulitano: Corseca
нохчийн: Корсика
Nordfriisk: Korsika
norsk: Korsika
norsk nynorsk: Korsika
Nouormand: Corse
occitan: Corsega
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Korsika
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕਾਰਸਿਕਾ
پنجابی: کارسیکا
Papiamentu: Corsica
Piemontèis: Còrsica
Plattdüütsch: Korsika
polski: Korsyka
português: Córsega
română: Corsica
Runa Simi: Corse
русский: Корсика
саха тыла: Корсика
sardu: Còssiga
Scots: Corsicae
shqip: Korsika
sicilianu: Còrsica
Simple English: Corsica
slovenčina: Korzika
slovenščina: Korzika
Soomaaliga: Coorsica
کوردی: کورسیکا
српски / srpski: Корзика
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Korzika
suomi: Korsika
svenska: Korsika
Tagalog: Corsica
தமிழ்: கோர்சிகா
Türkçe: Korsika
українська: Корсика
اردو: کارسیکا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: كورسىكا ئارىلى
vèneto: Còrsega
vepsän kel’: Korsik
Tiếng Việt: Corse
文言: 科西嘉
Winaray: Corse
吴语: 科西嘉岛
Xitsonga: Corsica
ייִדיש: קארסיקע
粵語: 歌斯嘉
Zazaki: Korsika
Zeêuws: Corsica
中文: 科西嘉岛