Cornwall

Cornwall
Kernow  (Cornish)
County
St Piran's Flag of Cornwall
Flag
Motto:
Onen hag oll (Cornish)
One and all
Cornwall within England
Coordinates: 50.2660° N, 5.0527° W
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionSouth West England
EstablishedAncient
Ceremonial county
Lord LieutenantColonel Edward Bolitho OBE
High SheriffSarah Elizabeth Coryton
Area3,562 km2 (1,375 sq mi)
 • Ranked12th of 48
Population (mid-2017 est.)563,600
 • Ranked40th of 48
Density158/km2 (410/sq mi)
Ethnicity99.7% White British, 0.3% Other
Unitary authority
CouncilCornwall Council
ExecutiveLiberal Democrat / Independent
Admin HQTruro
Area3,546 km2 (1,369 sq mi)
 • Ranked2nd of 326
Population561,300
 • Ranked4th of 326
Density158/km2 (410/sq mi)
ISO 3166-2GB-CON
ONS code00HE
GSS codeE06000052
www.cornwall.gov.uk
Districts
  1. Cornwall (unitary)
  2. Isles of Scilly (sui generis unitary)
Members of Parliament
PoliceDevon and Cornwall Police
Time zoneGreenwich Mean Time (UTC)
 • Summer (DST)British Summer Time (UTC+1)

Cornwall (əl/;[1] Cornish: Kernow [ˈkɛrnɔʊ]) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea,[2] to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain. The furthest southwestern point of the island is Land's End; the southernmost point is Lizard Point. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2 (1,376 sq mi).[3][4][5][6] The county has been administered since 2009 by the unitary authority, Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall also includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately. The administrative centre of Cornwall, and its only city, is Truro.

Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora. It retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its unique history, and is recognised as one of the Celtic nations with a rich cultural heritage.[7] It was formerly a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy. The Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.[8][9] In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities,[10] giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group.[11][12]

First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and then Bronze Age peoples, and later (in the Iron Age) by Brythons with strong trade and cultural links to Wales and Brittany. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south west of England began in the early Bronze Age.

Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, and there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there.[citation needed] After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae. The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from the Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham and often came into conflict with the expanding kingdom of Wessex. King Athelstan in AD 936 set the boundary between English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar.[13] From the early Middle Ages, language and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas.

Historically tin mining was important in the Cornish economy; it was increasingly significant during the High Middle Ages, and expanded greatly during the 19th century, when rich copper mines were also in production. In the mid-19th century, however, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, and metal mining had virtually ended by the 1990s. Traditionally, fishing (particularly of pilchards) and agriculture (notably dairy products and vegetables) were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century; however, Cornwall's economy struggled after the decline of the mining and fishing industries.[14]

Cornwall is noted for its geology and coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall. The north coast has many cliffs where exposed geological formations are studied. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, and its very mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, and Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.[15]

Name and emblems

"Cornweallas" shown on an early 19th-century map of "Saxon England" (and Wales) based on the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
Cliffs at Land's End

The modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups:

In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Cornwall
Ænglisc: Cornweal
العربية: كورنوال
aragonés: Cornualla
asturianu: Cornualles
Bân-lâm-gú: Kernow
беларуская: Корнуал
български: Корнуол
brezhoneg: Kernev-Veur
Cebuano: Cornwall
čeština: Cornwall
Cymraeg: Cernyw
dansk: Cornwall
davvisámegiella: Kernow
Deutsch: Cornwall
dolnoserbski: Korniska
eesti: Cornwall
Ελληνικά: Κορνουάλη
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Curnuvàglia
español: Cornualles
Esperanto: Kornvalo
euskara: Kornualles
فارسی: کورنوال
føroyskt: Cornwall
français: Cornouailles
Frysk: Cornwall
Gaelg: Yn Chorn
Gàidhlig: A’ Chòrn
galego: Cornualles
한국어: 콘월주
հայերեն: Կոռնուոլ
हिन्दी: कॉर्नवल
hornjoserbsce: Korniska
Ido: Kornwal
Bahasa Indonesia: Cornwall
interlingua: Cornuallia
Interlingue: Cornwall
íslenska: Cornwall
italiano: Cornovaglia
עברית: קורנוול
kernowek: Kernow
Latina: Cornubia
latviešu: Kornvola
Lëtzebuergesch: Cornwall
lietuvių: Kornvalis
magyar: Cornwall
मराठी: कॉर्नवॉल
مازِرونی: کورن‌وال
Bahasa Melayu: Cornwall
Mirandés: Cornualha
Nederlands: Cornwall
Nedersaksies: Kornwallis
norsk: Cornwall
norsk nynorsk: Cornwall
occitan: Cornoalha
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kornuoll
پنجابی: کارنوال
polski: Kornwalia
português: Cornualha
română: Cornwall
Runa Simi: Cornwall
русский: Корнуолл
Scots: Cornwall
sicilianu: Curnuvagghia
Simple English: Cornwall
slovenščina: Cornwall
ślůnski: Kornwalijo
српски / srpski: Корнвол
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Cornwall
suomi: Cornwall
svenska: Cornwall
Tagalog: Cornualles
Türkçe: Cornwall
українська: Корнуолл
اردو: کورنوال
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Kornwél
vèneto: Cornovagia
Tiếng Việt: Cornwall
Volapük: Cornwall
Winaray: Cornwall
吴语: 康沃尔
ייִדיש: קארנוואל
粵語: 康和郡
Zeêuws: Cornwall
中文: 康沃爾郡