State of Connecticut
  • The Constitution State (official)
  • The Nutmeg State
  • The Provisions State
  • The Land of Steady Habits
Anthem: Yankee Doodle
Map of the United States with Connecticut highlighted
Map of the United States with Connecticut highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodConnecticut Colony
Admitted to the UnionJanuary 9, 1788 (5th)
Largest cityBridgeport[3]
Largest metroGreater New York
 • GovernorNed Lamont (D)
 • Lieutenant GovernorSusan Bysiewicz (D)
LegislatureConnecticut General Assembly
 • Upper houseConnecticut Senate
 • Lower houseConnecticut House of Representatives
U.S. senatorsRichard Blumenthal (D)
Chris Murphy (D)
U.S. House delegation5 Democrats (list)
 • Total5,567 sq mi (14,357 km2)
 • Land4,849 sq mi (12,559 km2)
 • Water698 sq mi (1,809 km2)  12.6%
Area rank48th
 • Length70 mi (113 km)
 • Width110 mi (177 km)
500 ft (150 m)
Highest elevation
(Massachusetts border on south slope of Mount Frissell[4][note 1])
2,379 ft (725 m)
Lowest elevation0 ft (0 m)
 • Total3,565,287 (2,019 est.)[5]
 • Rank29th
 • Density739/sq mi (285/km2)
 • Density rank4th
 • Median household income
 • Income rank
 • Official languageNone
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
USPS abbreviation
ISO 3166 codeUS-CT
Connecticut state symbols
Flag of Connecticut.svg
Seal of Connecticut.svg
Living insignia
BirdAmerican robin
FishAmerican shad
FlowerMountain laurel
InsectEuropean mantis
MammalSperm whale
TreeCharter Oak, a white oak
Inanimate insignia
DanceSquare dance
FossilDinosaur tracks
Connecticut State Tartan
State route marker
Connecticut state route marker
State quarter
Connecticut quarter dollar coin
Released in 1999
Lists of United States state symbols
Interactive map showing border of Connecticut (click to zoom)

Connecticut (t/ (About this soundlisten))[10] is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index (0.962), and median household income in the United States.[11][12][13] It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, and Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport. It is part of New England, although portions of it are often grouped with New York and New Jersey as the tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which approximately bisects the state. The word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river".[14]

Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was initially part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English. Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the Saybrook Colony and the New Haven Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter, making Connecticut a crown colony. This was one of the Thirteen Colonies which rejected British rule in the American Revolution.

Connecticut is the third smallest state by area,[15] the 29th most populous,[16] and the fourth most densely populated[15] of the 50 states. It is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", and the "Land of Steady Habits".[1] It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States (see Connecticut Compromise).

The Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state also has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County.


Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, and on the east by Rhode Island. The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, and other major cities and towns (by population) include Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford, Waterbury, Norwalk, Danbury, New Britain, Greenwich, and Bristol. Connecticut is slightly larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut.

Map of Connecticut NA cropped.png

The highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts.[17] At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet (6 m) above sea level.

Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront (technically speaking). The coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, which is an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the west (toward New York City) and to the east (toward the "race" near Rhode Island). This situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, and many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.[citation needed]

The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's relatively small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape; for example, in the northwestern Litchfield Hills, it features rolling mountains and horse farms, whereas in areas to the east of New Haven along the coast, the landscape features coastal marshes, beaches, and large scale maritime activities.

Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities such as Stamford, Bridgeport, and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London, then northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green (the largest in New England), Milford Green (second largest in New England) and Wethersfield Green (the oldest in the state). Near the green typically stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, and so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, and look less visually like traditional New England.

The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5 miles (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is clearly established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were finally concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, and the town was split in half.[18][19]

The southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, Stamford, New Canaan, Darien, and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating with New York giving up its claim to the area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield to the Massachusetts border, as well as undisputed claim to Rye, New York.[20]

Areas maintained by the National Park Service include Appalachian National Scenic Trail, Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor, and Weir Farm National Historic Site.[21]


Köppen climate types in Connecticut
Scenery upon Barndoor Hills in Granby in autumn
Harbor Point Marina in Stamford during summer

Connecticut lies at the rough transition zone between the southern end of the humid continental climate, and the northern portion of the temperate zone (or subtropical in some climate classifications). Northern Connecticut generally experiences a climate with cold winters with moderate snowfall and hot, humid summers. Far southern and coastal Connecticut has a climate with cool winters with a mix or rain and infrequent snow, and the long hot and humid summers typical of the middle and lower East Coast.

Connecticut sees a fairly even precipitation pattern with rainfall/snowfall spread throughout the 12 months. Connecticut averages 56% of possible sunshine (higher than the US national average), averaging 2,400 hours of sunshine annually.[22]

Early spring (April) can range from slightly cool (40s to low 50s F) to warm (65 to 70 F), while mid and late spring (late April/May) is warm. By late May, the building Bermuda High creates a southerly flow of warm and humid tropical air, bringing hot weather conditions throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81 °F (27 °C) and 85 °F (29 °C) in Windsor Locks at the peak of summer in late July. On occasion, heat waves with highs from 90 to 100 °F (38 °C) occur across Connecticut. Although summers are sunny in Connecticut, quick moving summer thunderstorms can bring brief downpours with thunder and lightning. Occasionally these thunderstorms can be severe, and the state usually averages one tornado per year.[23] During hurricane season, the remains of tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region, though a direct hit is rare.

Weather commonly associated with the fall season typically begins in October and lasts to the first days of December. Daily high temperatures in October and November range from the 50s to 60s (Fahrenheit) with nights in the 40s and upper 30s. Colorful foliage begins across northern parts of the state in early October and moves south and east reaching southeast Connecticut by early November. Far southern and coastal areas, however, have more oak and hickory trees (and fewer maples) and are often less colorful than areas to the north. By December daytime highs are in the 40s ºF for much of the state, and average overnight lows are below freezing.

Winters (December through mid-March) are generally cold from south to north in Connecticut. The coldest month (January) has average high temperatures ranging from 38 °F (3 °C) in the coastal lowlands to 33 °F (1 °C) in the inland and northern portions on the state. The average yearly snowfall ranges from about 60 inches (1,500 mm) in the higher elevations of the northern portion of the state to only 20–25 inches (510–640 mm) along the southeast coast of Connecticut (Branford to Groton). Generally, any locale north or west of Interstate 84 receives the most snow, during a storm, and throughout the season. Most of Connecticut has less than 60 days of snow cover. Snow usually falls from late November to late March in the northern part of the state, and from early December to mid-March in the southern and coastal parts of the state.

Connecticut's record high temperature is 106 °F (41 °C) which occurred in Danbury on July 15, 1995; the record low is −32 °F (−36 °C) which occurred in the Northwest Hills Falls Village on February 16, 1943, and Coventry on January 22, 1961.[24]

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Connecticut cities (°F)
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Bridgeport 37/23 40/25 47/32 58/41 68/51 77/60 82/66 81/65 74/58 63/46 53/38 42/28
Hartford 35/16 39/19 47/27 59/38 70/48 79/57 84/63 82/61 74/51 63/40 52/32 40/22


Forests consist of a mix of Northeastern coastal forests of Oak in southern areas of the state, to the upland New England-Acadian forests in the northwestern parts of the state. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia) is the state flower and is native to low ridges in several parts of Connecticut. Rosebay Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) is also native to eastern uplands of Connecticut and Pachaug State Forest is home to the Rhododendron Sanctuary Trail. Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides), is found in wetlands in the southern parts of the state. Connecticut has one native cactus (Opuntia humifusa), found in sandy coastal areas and low hillsides. Several types of beach grasses and wildflowers are also native to Connecticut.[27] Connecticut spans USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 5b to 7a. Coastal Connecticut is the broad transition zone where more southern and subtropical plants are cultivated. In some coastal communities, Magnolia grandiflora (southern magnolia), Crape Myrtles, scrub palms (Sabal minor), and other broadleaved evergreens are cultivated in small numbers.[citation needed]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Connecticut
አማርኛ: ኮነቲከት
Ænglisc: Connecticut
العربية: كونيتيكت
aragonés: Connecticut
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܟܘܢܝܬܝܟܬ
arpetan: Connecticut
asturianu: Connecticut
Avañe'ẽ: Connecticut
Aymar aru: Connecticut suyu
azərbaycanca: Konnektikut
Bân-lâm-gú: Connecticut
беларуская: Канектыкут
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Канэктыкут
भोजपुरी: कनेक्टिकट
Bikol Central: Connecticut
Bislama: Connecticut
български: Кънектикът
Boarisch: Connecticut
bosanski: Connecticut
brezhoneg: Connecticut
català: Connecticut
Чӑвашла: Коннектикут
Cebuano: Connecticut
čeština: Connecticut
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Connecticut
Cymraeg: Connecticut
davvisámegiella: Connecticut
Deitsch: Connecticut
Deutsch: Connecticut
Ελληνικά: Κονέκτικατ
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Connecticut
español: Connecticut
Esperanto: Konektikuto
euskara: Connecticut
فارسی: کنتیکت
Fiji Hindi: Connecticut
føroyskt: Connecticut
français: Connecticut
Frysk: Konettikut
Gaeilge: Connecticut
Gagauz: Connecticut
Gàidhlig: Connecticut
galego: Connecticut
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Connecticut
한국어: 코네티컷주
Hawaiʻi: Konekikuka
հայերեն: Կոնեկտիկուտ
हिन्दी: कनेक्टिकट
hornjoserbsce: Connecticut
hrvatski: Connecticut
Ilokano: Connecticut
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: কানেকটিকাট
Bahasa Indonesia: Connecticut
interlingua: Connecticut
Interlingue: Connecticut
Iñupiak: Kanaatikut
isiXhosa: IKhonethikhati
isiZulu: Connecticut
íslenska: Connecticut
italiano: Connecticut
עברית: קונטיקט
Kabɩyɛ: Kɔnɛtɩkuti
Kapampangan: Connecticut
ქართული: კონექტიკუტი
қазақша: Коннектикут
kernowek: Connecticut
Kiswahili: Connecticut
Kreyòl ayisyen: Konèktikòt
kurdî: Connecticut
кырык мары: Коннектикут
Ladino: Connecticut
لۊری شومالی: کنتیکت
Latina: Connecticuta
latviešu: Konektikuta
Lëtzebuergesch: Connecticut
lietuvių: Konektikutas
Ligure: Connecticut
Limburgs: Connecticut
Lingua Franca Nova: Connecticut
lumbaart: Connecticut
magyar: Connecticut
मैथिली: कनेक्टिकट
македонски: Конектикат
Malagasy: Connecticut
Māori: Connecticut
მარგალური: კონექტიკუტი
مازِرونی: کنتیکت
Bahasa Melayu: Connecticut
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Connecticut
Dorerin Naoero: Connecticut
Nederlands: Connecticut
Nedersaksies: Connecticut
नेपाली: कनेक्टिकट
नेपाल भाषा: कनेक्तिकत
нохчийн: Коннектикут
Nordfriisk: Connecticut
norsk nynorsk: Connecticut
occitan: Connecticut
олык марий: Коннектикут
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Konnektikut
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕਨੈਟੀਕਟ
پنجابی: کنکٹیکٹ
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ខុនណេកទីខាត់
Piemontèis: Connecticut
Plattdüütsch: Connecticut
polski: Connecticut
português: Connecticut
română: Connecticut
rumantsch: Connecticut
Runa Simi: Connecticut suyu
русский: Коннектикут
саха тыла: Коннектикут
संस्कृतम्: कनेक्टिकट्
Seeltersk: Connecticut
sicilianu: Connecticut
Simple English: Connecticut
slovenčina: Connecticut
slovenščina: Connecticut
ślůnski: Connecticut
کوردی: کۆنێتیکت
српски / srpski: Конектикат
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Connecticut
svenska: Connecticut
Tagalog: Connecticut
தமிழ்: கனெடிகட்
Taqbaylit: Connecticut
татарча/tatarça: Коннектикут
తెలుగు: కనెక్టికట్
Türkçe: Connecticut
українська: Коннектикут
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Konnéktikat Shitati
Tiếng Việt: Connecticut
Volapük: Connecticut
Winaray: Connecticut
吴语: 康涅狄格
ייִדיש: קאנעטיקעט
Yorùbá: Connecticut
Zazaki: Connecticut
Zeêuws: Connecticut
žemaitėška: Konektėkots