Confirmation

A woodcut depicting the confirmation of Lutheran youth.

In Christianity, Confirmation is seen as the sealing of Christianity created in Baptism. Those being confirmed are known as confirmands. In some denominations, such as the Anglican Communion [1] and Methodist Churches, [2] confirmation bestows full membership in a local congregation upon the recipient. In others, such as the Roman Catholic Church, Confirmation "renders the bond with the Church more perfect", [3] because, while a baptized person is already a member, [4] "reception of the sacrament of Confirmation is necessary for the completion of baptismal grace". [5]

Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox Churches view Confirmation as a sacrament. In the East it is conferred immediately after baptism. In the West, this practice is followed when adults are baptized, but in the case of infants not in danger of death it is administered, ordinarily by a bishop, only when the child reaches the age of reason or early adolescence. Among those Catholics who practice teen-aged Confirmation, the practice may be perceived, secondarily, as a "coming of age" rite. [6] [7]

In traditional Protestant denominations, such as the Anglican, Lutheran, Methodist and Reformed Churches, Confirmation is a rite that often includes a profession of faith by an already baptized person. It is also required by most Protestant denominations for full membership in the respective Church, in particular for traditional Protestant churches, [8] in which it is also recognized secondarily as a coming of age ceremony.[ citation needed]

Confirmation is not practiced in Baptist, Anabaptist and other groups that teach believer's baptism. Thus, the sacrament or rite of Confirmation is administered to those being received from those aforementioned groups, in addition to those converts from non-Christian religions.

There is an analogous ceremony also called Confirmation in the Jewish religion, which is not to be confused with Bar or Bat Mitzvah. The early Jewish Reformers instituted a ceremony where young Jews who are older than Bar Mitzvah age study both traditional and contemporary sources of Jewish philosophy in order to learn what it means to be Jewish. The age instituted was older than that of Bar Mitzvah because some of these topics were considered too complicated for 13-year-old minds to grasp. Nowadays, Confirmation has gained widespread adherence among congregations affiliated with the Reform movement, but has not gained as much traction in Conservative and Orthodox Jewish groups. The way Confirmation differs from Bar Mitzvah is that Confirmation is considered a more communal confirmation of one's being Jewish, and Bar Mitzvah is more of a personal confirmation of joining that covenant (see below section about Confirmation in Judaism)

Scriptural foundation

The roots of Confirmation are found in the New Testament. For instance, in the Acts of the Apostles 8:14–17:

Now when the apostles in Jerusalem heard that Samaria had accepted the word of God, they sent them Peter and John, who went down and prayed for them, that they might receive the holy Spirit, for it had not yet fallen upon any of them; they had only been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. Then they laid hands on them and they received the holy Spirit.

Also, in the Gospel of John, Chapter 14, Christ speaks of the coming of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles ( John 14:15–26). Later, after his Resurrection, Jesus breathed upon them and they received the Holy Spirit ( John 20:22), a process completed on the day of Pentecost ( Acts 2:1–4). After this point, the New Testament records the apostles bestowing the Holy Spirit upon others through the laying on of hands.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Vormsel
العربية: سر الميرون
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܘܪܘܢ
azərbaycanca: Konfirmasiya
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Канфірмацыя
brezhoneg: Kouzoumenn
català: Confirmació
čeština: Biřmování
eesti: Leer
español: Confirmación
Esperanto: Konfirmacio
français: Confirmation
한국어: 견진성사
hrvatski: Sveta potvrda
Bahasa Indonesia: Penguatan
íslenska: Ferming
italiano: Confermazione
Kiswahili: Kipaimara
Latina: Confirmatio
Limburgs: Vörmsel
lumbaart: Cresma
مصرى: تثبيت
Nederlands: Vormsel
日本語: 堅信
norsk nynorsk: Konfirmasjon
polski: Bierzmowanie
português: Crisma
română: Mir (taină)
slovenščina: Birma
suomi: Rippikoulu
українська: Миропомазання
West-Vlams: Plechtige communie
中文: 坚振圣事