Computer

Computer
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Computers and computing devices from different eras

A computer is a machine that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. A "complete" computer including the hardware, the operating system (main software), and peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system. This term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster.

Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. The Internet is run on computers and it connects hundreds of millions of other computers and their users.

Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century. The first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The first semiconductor transistors in the late 1940s were followed by the silicon-based MOSFET (MOS transistor) and monolithic integrated circuit (IC) chip technologies in the late 1950s, leading to the microprocessor and the microcomputer revolution in the 1970s. The speed, power and versatility of computers have been increasing dramatically ever since then, with MOS transistor counts increasing at a rapid pace (as predicted by Moore's law), leading to the Digital Revolution during the late 20th to early 21st centuries.

Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) in the form of a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) microprocessor, along with some type of computer memory, typically MOS semiconductor memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices include input devices (keyboards, mice, joystick, etc.), output devices (monitor screens, printers, etc.), and input/output devices that perform both functions (e.g., the 2000s-era touchscreen). Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.

Etymology

A human computer.
A female computer, with microscope and calculator, 1952

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known use of the word "computer" was in 1613 in a book called The Yong Mans Gleanings by English writer Richard Braithwait: "I haue [sic] read the truest computer of Times, and the best Arithmetician that euer [sic] breathed, and he reduceth thy dayes into a short number." This usage of the term referred to a human computer, a person who carried out calculations or computations. The word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. During the latter part of this period women were often hired as computers because they could be paid less than their male counterparts.[1] By 1943, most human computers were women.[2]

The Online Etymology Dictionary gives the first attested use of "computer" in the 1640s, meaning "one who calculates"; this is an "agent noun from compute (v.)". The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the use of the term to mean "'calculating machine' (of any type) is from 1897." The Online Etymology Dictionary indicates that the "modern use" of the term, to mean "programmable digital electronic computer" dates from "1945 under this name; [in a] theoretical [sense] from 1937, as Turing machine".[3]

Other Languages
Acèh: Komputer
Afrikaans: Rekenaar
Alemannisch: Computer
አማርኛ: ኮምፒዩተር
Ænglisc: Spearctelle
Аҧсшәа: Акомпиутер
العربية: حاسوب
aragonés: Ordinador
অসমীয়া: কম্পিউটাৰ
asturianu: Computadora
Avañe'ẽ: Kombutadóra
azərbaycanca: Kompüter
Bân-lâm-gú: Tiān-náu
Basa Banyumasan: Komputer
башҡортса: Компьютер
беларуская: Камп’ютар
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кампутар
भोजपुरी: कंप्यूटर
Bislama: Compter
български: Компютър
Boarisch: Rechna
བོད་ཡིག: གློག་ཀླད།
bosanski: Računar
brezhoneg: Urzhiataer
буряад: Компьютер
català: Ordinador
Чӑвашла: Компьютер
Cebuano: Dagitok
čeština: Počítač
Cymraeg: Cyfrifiadur
dansk: Computer
Deutsch: Computer
डोटेली: कम्प्युटर
eesti: Arvuti
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Zarvlån
español: Computadora
Esperanto: Komputilo
estremeñu: Ordenadol
euskara: Ordenagailu
فارسی: رایانه
Fiji Hindi: Computer
føroyskt: Teldur
français: Ordinateur
furlan: Ordenadôr
Gaeilge: Ríomhaire
Gàidhlig: Coimpiutair
galego: Ordenador
贛語: 電腦
Gĩkũyũ: Kombuita
ગુજરાતી: સંગણક
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌲𐌰𐍂𐌰𐌷𐌽𐌾𐌰
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thien-nó
한국어: 컴퓨터
Hausa: Komfuta
հայերեն: Համակարգիչ
Արեւմտահայերէն: Համակարգիչ
हिन्दी: कंप्यूटर
hrvatski: Računalo
Igbo: Orunotu
Ilokano: Kompiuter
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: কম্পিউটার
Bahasa Indonesia: Komputer
interlingua: Computator
Interlingue: Computator
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᖃᕋᓴᐅᔭᖅ
Iñupiak: Qaqasauraq
isiXhosa: Ikhompyutha
isiZulu: Ikhompyutha
íslenska: Tölva
italiano: Computer
עברית: מחשב
Jawa: Komputer
Kapampangan: Computer
къарачай-малкъар: Компьютер
ქართული: კომპიუტერი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: کَمپیوٗٹَر
kaszëbsczi: Kòmpùter
қазақша: Компьютер
kernowek: Comptyor
Kiswahili: Tarakilishi
Kongo: Ludinatelo
Kreyòl ayisyen: Òdinatè
kurdî: Komputer
Кыргызча: Компьютер
Ladino: Contador
لۊری شومالی: ٱنجومیار
Latina: Computatrum
latviešu: Dators
Lëtzebuergesch: Computer
лезги: Компьютер
lietuvių: Kompiuteris
Ligure: Computer
Limburgs: Computer
lingála: Esálela
Lingua Franca Nova: Computador
Livvinkarjala: Tiedokoneh
la .lojban.: skami
lumbaart: Computer
मैथिली: कम्प्युटर
македонски: Сметач
Malagasy: Solosaina
Malti: Kompjuter
მარგალური: კომპიუტერი
مازِرونی: کامپیوتر
Bahasa Melayu: Komputer
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Diêng-nō̤
Mirandés: Cumputador
монгол: Компьютер
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကွန်ပျူတာ
Nederlands: Computer
Nedersaksies: Komputer
नेपाली: कम्प्युटर
नेपाल भाषा: कम्प्युटर
Napulitano: Computer
нохчийн: Компьютер
norsk: Datamaskin
norsk nynorsk: Datamaskin
occitan: Ordinator
олык марий: Компьютер
Oromoo: Kompitara
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kompyuter
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੰਪਿਊਟਰ
پنجابی: کمپیوٹر
پښتو: سولگر
Patois: Kompyuuta
ភាសាខ្មែរ: កុំព្យូទ័រ
Piemontèis: Ordinator
Plattdüütsch: Reekner
polski: Komputer
português: Computador
Qaraqalpaqsha: Kompyuter
qırımtatarca: Kompyuter
română: Calculator
romani čhib: Ginepaskro
Runa Simi: Antañiqiq
русиньскый: Компютер
русский: Компьютер
саха тыла: Көмпүүтэр
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱠᱚᱢᱯᱩᱴᱚᱨ
संस्कृतम्: सङ्गणकम्
sardu: Computer
Scots: Computer
Seeltersk: Computer
Sesotho: Khomputa
shqip: Kompjuteri
sicilianu: Computer
සිංහල: පරිගණකය
Simple English: Computer
سنڌي: ڪمپيوٽر
slovenčina: Počítač
slovenščina: Računalnik
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Ищислитєл҄ь
ślůnski: Kůmputer
Soomaaliga: Kumbuyuutar
کوردی: کۆمپیوتەر
српски / srpski: Рачунар
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kompjuter
Sunda: Komputer
suomi: Tietokone
svenska: Dator
Tagalog: Kompyuter
தமிழ்: கணினி
татарча/tatarça: Санак
తెలుగు: గణనయంత్రం
тоҷикӣ: Роёна
Tsetsêhestâhese: Tséohketoetanóto
Türkçe: Bilgisayar
Türkmençe: Kompýuter
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Makuɛ̈n
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Komputer
українська: Комп'ютер
اردو: کمپیوٹر
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: كومپيۇتېر
Vahcuengh: Dennauj
vèneto: Computer
vepsän kel’: Kompjuter
Tiếng Việt: Máy tính
Võro: Puutri
walon: Copiutrece
文言: 電腦
West-Vlams: Computer
Winaray: Kompyuter
Wolof: Nosukaay
Xitsonga: Khompuyuta
ייִדיש: קאמפיוטער
Yorùbá: Kọ̀mpútà
粵語: 電腦
Zazaki: Komputer
žemaitėška: Kuompioteris