Community

A community of interest gathers at Stonehenge, England, for the summer solstice.

A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) who have something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity. Communities often share a sense of place that is situated in a given geographical area (e.g. a country, village, town, or neighborhood) or in virtual space through communication platforms. Durable relations that extend beyond immediate genealogical ties also define a sense of community. People tend to define those social ties as important to their identity, practice, and roles in social institutions (such as family, home, work, government, society, or humanity at-large).[1][need quotation to verify][2] Although communities are usually small relative to personal social ties (micro-level), "community" may also refer to large group affiliations (or macro-level), such as national communities, international communities, and virtual communities.[3]

The English-language word "community" derives from the Old French comuneté, which comes from the Latin communitas "community", "public spirit" (from Latin communis, "shared in common").[4]

Human communities may share intent, belief, resources, preferences, needs, and risks in common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of cohesiveness.[citation needed]

Perspectives of various disciplines

Archaeology

In archaeological studies of social communities the term "community" is used in two ways, paralleling usage in other areas. The first is an informal definition of community as a place where people used to live. In this sense it is synonymous with the concept of an ancient settlement, whether a hamlet, village, town, or city. The second meaning is similar to the usage of the term in other social sciences: a community is a group of people living near one another who interact socially. Social interaction on a small scale can be difficult to identify with archaeological data. Most reconstructions of social communities by archaeologists rely on the principle that social interaction is conditioned by physical distance. Therefore, a small village settlement likely constituted a social community, and spatial subdivisions of cities and other large settlements may have formed communities. Archaeologists typically use similarities in material culture—from house types to styles of pottery—to reconstruct communities in the past. This is based on the assumption that people or households will share more similarities in the types and styles of their material goods with other members of a social community than they will with outsiders.[5]

Ecology

In ecology, a community is an assemblage of populations of different species, interacting with one another. Community ecology is the branch of ecology that studies interactions between and among species. It considers how such interactions, along with interactions between species and the abiotic environment, affect community structure and species richness, diversity and patterns of abundance. Species interact in three ways: competition, predation and mutualism. Competition typically results in a double negative—that is both species lose in the interaction. Predation is a win/lose situation with one species winning. Mutualism, on the other hand, involves both species cooperating in some way, with both winning. The two main types of communities are major which are self-sustaining and self-regulating (such as a forest or a lake) and minor communities which rely on other communities (like fungi decomposing a log) and are the building blocks of major communities.

This is a simplified example of a community. A community includes many populations and how they interact with each other. In this example there's an interaction between the zebra and the bush, and the lion and the zebra, as well as the bird and the organisms by the water, like the worms.
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Samelewing
العربية: جماعة مشتركة
aragonés: Comunidat
asturianu: Comunidá
Bân-lâm-gú: Kiōng-tông-thé
беларуская: Грамада
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Грамада
български: Общност
català: Comunitat
čeština: Komunita
Cymraeg: Cymuned
Deutsch: Gemeinschaft
eesti: Kogukond
Ελληνικά: Κοινότητα
español: Comunidad
Esperanto: Homa komunumo
euskara: Gizatalde
فارسی: اجتماع
français: Communauté
한국어: 공동체
हिन्दी: समुदाय
Bahasa Indonesia: Komunitas
íslenska: Samfélag
italiano: Comunità
עברית: קהילה
қазақша: Қауым
kurdî: Civat
Latina: Communitas
latviešu: Kopiena
lietuvių: Bendruomenė
Limburgs: Samelaeving
magyar: Közösség
മലയാളം: സമുദായം
Nederlands: Samenleving
Nedersaksies: Saemenleving
नेपाल भाषा: जाति
日本語: 共同体
norsk nynorsk: Gemeinschaft
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਭਾਈਚਾਰਾ
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សហគមន៍
polski: Wspólnota
português: Comunidade
română: Comunitate
русиньскый: Громада
русский: Сообщество
shqip: Komunitet
Simple English: Community
کوردی: کۆمەڵ
српски / srpski: Заједница
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Zajednica
Basa Sunda: Komunitas
suomi: Yhteisö
Tagalog: Pamayanan
தமிழ்: குமுகம்
తెలుగు: సంఘం
ไทย: ชุมชน
Türkçe: Topluluk
українська: Спільнота
Tiếng Việt: Cộng đồng
吴语: 羣體
ייִדיש: געמיינדע
Yorùbá: Àgbàjọ
粵語: 社群
中文: 群体