Colombia

Republic of Colombia
República de Colombia  ( Spanish)
Motto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish)
"Freedom and Order"
Anthem:  ¡Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible!  (Spanish)
O unfading glory!
Location of Colombia
Capital
and largest city
Bogotá
4°35′N 74°4′W / 4°35′N 74°4′W / 4.583; -74.067
Official languages Spanisha
Recognized regional languages 68 ethnic languages and dialects. English is also official in the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina.
Ethnic groups (2005 [1] [2])
Demonym Colombian
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
•  President
Juan Manuel Santos
Óscar Naranjo
Efraín Cepeda
Rigoberto Echeverri
Legislature Congress
Senate
Chamber of Representatives
Independence from Spain
•  Declared
20 July 1810
• Recognized
7 August 1819
• Last unitarisation
1886
4 July 1991
Area
• Total
1,141,748 km2 (440,831 sq mi) ( 25th)
• Water (%)
8.8 (17th)
Population
• August 2017 estimate
49,364,592 [3] ( 29th)
• 2005 census
42,888,592 [3]
• Density
40.74/km2 (105.5/sq mi) ( 173rd)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$720.151 billion [4] ( 31st)
• Per capita
$14,609 [4]
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$306.439 billion [4] ( 32nd)
• Per capita
$6,216 [4]
Gini (2016) Positive decrease 51.7 [5]
high
HDI (2015) Increase 0.727 [6]
high ·  95th
Currency Peso ( COP)
Time zone COT ( UTC−5b)
Date format dd−mm−yyyy (CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +57
ISO 3166 code CO
Internet TLD .co
  1. Although the Colombian Constitution specifies Spanish (Castellano) as the official language in all Colombian territory, other languages spoken in the country by ethnic groups – approximately 68 languages – each is also official in its own territory. [7] English is also official in the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina. [8]
  2. The official Colombian time [9] is controlled and coordinated by the National Institute of Metrology. [10]

Colombia ( ə/ kə-LUM-biə or ə/ kə-LOM-biə; Spanish:  [koˈlombja]), officially the Republic of Colombia ( Spanish: About this sound  República de Colombia ), [Note 1] is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru. [11] It shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic. [12] It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples, with as most advanced the Muisca, Quimbaya and the Tairona.

The Spanish set foot on Colombian soil for the first time in 1499 and in the first half of the 16th century initiated a period of conquest and colonization, ultimately creating the New Kingdom of Granada, with as capital Santafé de Bogotá. Independence from Spain was acquired in 1819, but by 1830 the " Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Since the 1960s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, which escalated in the 1990s but then decreased from 2005 onward. [13] Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage. The urban centres are mostly located in the highlands of the Andes mountains.

Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. Ecologically, it is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer. [14] Colombia is a middle power and a regional actor with the fourth-largest economy in Latin America, [4] is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, and other international organizations. [15] Colombia has a diversified economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run. [16] [17]

Etymology

Colombia is named after Christopher Columbus

The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus ( Italian: Cristoforo Colombo, Spanish: Cristóbal Colón). It was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule. The name was later adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada (modern-day Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador, and northwest Brazil). [18]

When Venezuela, Ecuador and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name " Republic of New Granada". New Granada officially changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before finally adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886. [18]

To refer to this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia.

Other Languages
Acèh: Kolombia
адыгабзэ: Коломбие
Afrikaans: Colombia
Alemannisch: Kolumbien
አማርኛ: ኮሎምቢያ
Ænglisc: Colombia
العربية: كولومبيا
aragonés: Colombia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܩܘܠܘܡܒܝܐ
arpetan: Colombie
asturianu: Colombia
Avañe'ẽ: Kolómbia
Aymar aru: Kuluwya
azərbaycanca: Kolumbiya
Bân-lâm-gú: Colombia
башҡортса: Колумбия
беларуская: Калумбія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Калюмбія
Bikol Central: Kolombya
Bislama: Colombia
български: Колумбия
Boarisch: Kolumbien
bosanski: Kolumbija
brezhoneg: Kolombia
буряад: Колумби
català: Colòmbia
Чӑвашла: Колумби
Cebuano: Colombia
čeština: Kolumbie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Colombia
chiShona: Colombia
corsu: Colombia
Cymraeg: Colombia
dansk: Colombia
Deutsch: Kolumbien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ކޮލަންބިއާ
dolnoserbski: Kolumbiska
eesti: Colombia
Ελληνικά: Κολομβία
español: Colombia
Esperanto: Kolombio
estremeñu: Colómbia
euskara: Kolonbia
eʋegbe: Colombia
فارسی: کلمبیا
Fiji Hindi: Colombia
føroyskt: Kolumbia
français: Colombie
Frysk: Kolombia
Gaeilge: An Cholóim
Gagauz: Kolumbiya
Gàidhlig: Coloimbia
galego: Colombia
贛語: 哥倫比亞
Gĩkũyũ: Colombia
ગુજરાતી: કોલમ્બિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: कोलंबिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Colombia
한국어: 콜롬비아
Հայերեն: Կոլումբիա
हिन्दी: कोलम्बिया
hornjoserbsce: Kolumbiska
hrvatski: Kolumbija
Igbo: Colombia
Ilokano: Colombia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: কলম্বিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Kolombia
interlingua: Colombia
Interlingue: Columbia
Ирон: Колумби
isiXhosa: IsiColombia
isiZulu: IKolombiya
íslenska: Kólumbía
italiano: Colombia
עברית: קולומביה
Basa Jawa: Kolombia
kalaallisut: Colombia
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕೊಲೊಂಬಿಯ
Kapampangan: Colombia
ქართული: კოლუმბია
қазақша: Колумбия
kernowek: Kolombi
Kinyarwanda: Kolombiya
Kiswahili: Kolombia
Kongo: Kolombia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kolonbi
Kurdî: Kolombiya
Кыргызча: Колумбия
кырык мары: Колумби
Ladino: Kolombia
лезги: Колумбия
لۊری شومالی: کولومبیا
latgaļu: Kolumbeja
Latina: Columbia
latviešu: Kolumbija
Lëtzebuergesch: Kolumbien
lietuvių: Kolumbija
Ligure: Colombia
Limburgs: Colombia
lingála: Kolombi
Livvinkarjala: Kolumbii
la .lojban.: kolombias
lumbaart: Culumbia
magyar: Kolumbia
македонски: Колумбија
Malagasy: Kolombia
മലയാളം: കൊളംബിയ
Malti: Kolombja
मराठी: कोलंबिया
მარგალური: კოლუმბია
مازِرونی: کلمبیا
Bahasa Melayu: Colombia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Colombia
монгол: Колумб
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကိုလံဘီယာနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Colombia
Dorerin Naoero: Korombiya
Nederlands: Colombia
नेपाली: कोलम्बिया
नेपाल भाषा: कोलोम्बिया
日本語: コロンビア
нохчийн: Колумби
Nordfriisk: Kolumbien
norsk: Colombia
norsk nynorsk: Colombia
Novial: Kolombia
occitan: Colómbia
олык марий: Колумбий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: କଲମ୍ବିଆ
Oromoo: Kolombiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kolumbiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੋਲੰਬੀਆ
Pangasinan: Colombia
پنجابی: کولمبیا
Papiamentu: Colombia
Patois: Kolombia
ភាសាខ្មែរ: កូឡុំប៊ី
Piemontèis: Colombia
Tok Pisin: Kolambia
Plattdüütsch: Kolumbien
polski: Kolumbia
português: Colômbia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Kolumbiya
qırımtatarca: Kolombiya
română: Columbia
Romani: Kolombiya
rumantsch: Columbia
Runa Simi: Kulumbya
русский: Колумбия
саха тыла: Колумбия
sámegiella: Kolombia
Gagana Samoa: Kolomupia
संस्कृतम्: कोलोम्बिया
sardu: Colòmbia
Scots: Colombie
Seeltersk: Kolumbien
Sesotho sa Leboa: Kolombia
shqip: Kolumbia
sicilianu: Colombia
Simple English: Colombia
slovenčina: Kolumbia
slovenščina: Kolumbija
ślůnski: Kolůmbijo
Soomaaliga: Kolombiya
کوردی: کۆلۆمبیا
Sranantongo: Kolombikondre
српски / srpski: Колумбија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kolumbija
Basa Sunda: Kolombia
suomi: Kolumbia
svenska: Colombia
Tagalog: Colombia
Taqbaylit: Kulumbya
татарча/tatarça: Колумбия
తెలుగు: కొలంబియా
tetun: Kolómbia
тоҷикӣ: Кулумбия
Türkçe: Kolombiya
Türkmençe: Kolumbiýa
удмурт: Колумбия
українська: Колумбія
اردو: کولمبیا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: كولومبىيە
Vahcuengh: Colombia
vèneto: Cołonbia
vepsän kel’: Kolumbii
Tiếng Việt: Colombia
Volapük: Kolumbän
Võro: Colombia
walon: Colombeye
文言: 哥倫比亞
West-Vlams: Colombia
Winaray: Colombia
Wolof: Koloombi
吴语: 哥伦比亚
Xitsonga: Colombia
ייִדיש: קאלאמביע
Yorùbá: Kòlómbìà
粵語: 哥倫比亞
Zazaki: Kolombiya
Zeêuws: Colombia
žemaitėška: Kuolombėjė
中文: 哥伦比亚
डोटेली: कोलम्बिया