Street where Debussy was born
Debussy, the eldest of five children, was born Achille-Claude Debussy (he later reversed his forenames)
 on 22 August 1862 in
Seine-et-Oise. His father, Manuel-Achille Debussy, owned a
china shop there; his mother, Victorine Manoury Debussy, was a seamstress. The family moved to Paris in 1867, but in 1870 Debussy's pregnant mother fled with Claude to his paternal aunt's home in
Cannes to escape the
Franco-Prussian War. At the age of seven, he began piano lessons with an Italian violinist in his early 40s named Jean Cerutti, and his aunt paid for his lessons. On their return to Paris in 1871, Debussy drew the attention of Marie Mauté de Fleurville,
 who gave him piano lessons at her apartment on the
Rue du Cardinal-Lemoine, where she accommodated her daughter Mathilde and son-in-law
Paul Verlaine for the year after their marriage in 1870.
 Marie Mauté claimed to have been an aristocrat, and a pupil of
Frédéric Chopin. Debussy always believed her, although there is no independent evidence to support her claim.
Debussy's talents soon became evident, and in 1872, at age ten, Debussy entered the
Paris Conservatoire, where he spent the next 11 years. During his time there he studied composition with
Ernest Guiraud, music history/theory with
Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray, harmony with
 piano with
Antoine François Marmontel, organ with
César Franck, and
Albert Lavignac, as well as other significant figures of the era. He also became a lifelong friend of fellow student and distinguished pianist
Isidor Philipp. After Debussy's death, many pianists sought Philipp's advice on playing his works.
Debussy was experimental from the outset, favouring
dissonances and intervals that were not taught at the Academy. Like
Georges Bizet, he was a brilliant pianist and an outstanding sight reader, who could have had a professional career had he so wished.
 The pieces he played in public at this time included
Weber, and Chopin's
Ballade No. 2, a movement from the
Piano Concerto No. 1, and the
Allegro de concert.
During the summers of 1880, 1881, and 1882, he accompanied
Nadezhda von Meck, the wealthy patroness of
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, as she travelled with her family in Europe. The young composer's many musical activities during these vacations included playing four-hand pieces with von Meck at the piano, giving music lessons to her children, and performing in private concerts with some of her musician friends.
 Despite von Meck's closeness to Tchaikovsky, the Russian master appears to have had minimal effect on Debussy. In September 1880 she sent his Danse bohémienne for Tchaikovsky's perusal; a month later Tchaikovsky wrote back to her: "It is a very pretty piece, but it is much too short. Not a single idea is expressed fully, the form is terribly shriveled, and it lacks unity." Debussy did not publish the piece, and the manuscript remained in the von Meck family; it was eventually sold to B. Schott's Söhne in Mainz, and published by them in 1932.
A greater influence was Debussy's close friendship with Marie-Blanche Vasnier, a singer he met when he began working as an accompanist to earn some money, embarking on an eight-year affair together. She and her husband, Parisian civil servant Henri, gave Debussy emotional and professional support. Henri Vasnier introduced him to the writings of influential French writers of the time, which gave rise to his first songs, settings of poems by Paul Verlaine.
Debussy at the
in Rome, 1885, at centre in the white jacket
As the winner of the 1884
Prix de Rome with his composition
L'enfant prodigue, he received a scholarship to the Académie des Beaux-Arts, which included a four-year residence at the
Villa Medici, the
French Academy in Rome, to further his studies (1885–1887). According to letters to Marie-Blanche Vasnier, perhaps in part designed to gain her sympathy, he found the artistic atmosphere stifling, the company boorish, the food bad, and the monastic quarters "abominable".
 Neither did he delight in Italian opera, as he found the operas of
Verdi not to his taste. Debussy was often depressed and unable to compose, but he was inspired by
Franz Liszt, whose command of the keyboard he found admirable. In June 1885, he wrote of his desire to follow his own way, saying, "I am sure the Institute would not approve, for, naturally it regards the path which it ordains as the only right one. But there is no help for it! I am too enamoured of my freedom, too fond of my own ideas!"
Debussy finally composed four pieces that were sent to the Academy: the symphonic ode Zuleima (based on a text by
Heinrich Heine); the orchestral piece Printemps; the
La Damoiselle élue (1887–1888) (which was criticized by the Academy as "bizarre", although it was the first piece in which the stylistic features of his later style began to emerge); and the Fantaisie for piano and orchestra, which was heavily based on
César Franck's music and therefore eventually withdrawn by Debussy. The Academy chided him for "courting the unusual" and hoped for something better from the gifted student. Although Debussy's works showed the influence of
Jules Massenet, Massenet concluded, "He is an enigma."
During his visits to
Bayreuth in 1888–9, Debussy was exposed to
Wagnerian opera, which would have a lasting impact on his work. Like many young musicians of the time, he responded positively to Richard Wagner's sensuousness, mastery of form, and striking harmonies.
 Wagner's extroverted emotionalism was not to be Debussy's way, but the German composer's influence is evident in La damoiselle élue and the 1889 piece
Cinq poèmes de Charles Baudelaire. Other songs of the period, notably the settings of Verlaine –
Ariettes oubliées, Trois mélodies, and Fêtes galantes – are all in a more capricious style.
Around this time he met
Erik Satie, who proved a kindred spirit in his experimental approach to composition and to naming his pieces. Both musicians were bohemians during this period, enjoying the same cafe society and struggling to stay afloat financially.
In 1889, at the
Exposition Universelle in Paris, Debussy first heard
gamelan music. He incorporated gamelan scales, melodies, rhythms, and ensemble textures into some of his compositions, most notably Pagodes from his piano collection