City

The waterfront of Alexandria, a modern city with at least 23 centuries of history.
A satellite view of East Asia at night shows urbanization as illumination. Here the Taiheiyō Belt, which includes Tokyo, demonstrates how megalopolises can be identified by nighttime lighting.[1]
This 1908 map of Piraeus, the port of Athens, shows the city's grid plan, credited by Aristotle to Hippodamus of Miletus.[2][3]

A city is a large human settlement.[4][5] Cities generally have extensive systems for housing, transportation, sanitation, utilities, land use, and communication. Their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process.

Historically, city-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization, roughly half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability.[6] Present-day cities usually form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment, entertainment, and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree also connected globally beyond these regions.

The most populated city proper is Chongqing[7] while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, and Jabodetabek (Jakarta).[8] The cities of Faiyum,[9] Damascus,[10] and Varanasi[11] are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.

Meaning

Palitana represents the city's symbolic function in the extreme, devoted as it is to Jain temples.[12]

A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its relatively great size, but also by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can also refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, and can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory.[13][14]

A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, and infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U.S. states using a minimum between 1,500 and 5,000 inhabitants.[15][16] However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums.[17] In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded on local criteria. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but also by the role it plays within a larger political context. Cities serve as administrative, commercial, religious, and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas.[18][19] Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City, Pennsylvania (pop 452) and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet.

The presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition.[20] A typical city has professional administrators, regulations, and some form of taxation (food and other necessities or means to trade for them) to feed the government workers. (This arrangement contrasts with the more typically horizontal relationships in a tribe or village accomplishing common goals through informal agreements between neighbors, or through leadership of a chief.) The governments may be based on heredity, religion, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, agriculture, commerce, manufacturing, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are often called civilizations.

The word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas, originally meaning citizenship or community member and eventually coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense.[13] The Roman civitas was closely linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis.[21]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Къалэ
Afrikaans: Stad
Alemannisch: Stadt
አማርኛ: ከተማ
Ænglisc: Burg
Аҧсшәа: Ақалақь
العربية: مدينة
aragonés: Ciudat
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܕܝܢܬܐ
armãneashti: Câsâbă
arpetan: Vela
asturianu: Ciudá
авар: Шагьар
Aymar aru: Marka
azərbaycanca: Şəhər
تۆرکجه: شهر
বাংলা: শহর
Bahasa Banjar: Kuta
Bân-lâm-gú: Siâⁿ-chhī
башҡортса: Ҡала
беларуская: Горад
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Горад
भोजपुरी: शहर
Bikol Central: Syudad
български: Град
Boarisch: Stod
བོད་ཡིག: གྲོང་ཁྱེར།
brezhoneg: Kêr
буряад: Хото
català: Ciutat
Чӑвашла: Хула
Cebuano: Dakbayan
čeština: Město
Chamoru: Dangkulo
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Ciudad
chiShona: Guta
Cymraeg: Dinas
dansk: By
Deitsch: Schtadt
Deutsch: Stadt
eesti: Linn
Ελληνικά: Πόλη
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Sitê
español: Ciudad
Esperanto: Urbo
estremeñu: Ciá
euskara: Hiri
فارسی: شهر
Fiji Hindi: City
føroyskt: Býur
français: Ville
Frysk: Stêd
furlan: Citât
Gaelg: Caayr
Gagauz: Kasaba
Gàidhlig: Baile mòr
galego: Cidade
ГӀалгӀай: Пхье
贛語: 城市
Gĩkũyũ: Cĩtĩ
ગુજરાતી: શહેર
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sàng-sṳ
한국어: 도시
Hawaiʻi: Kūlanakauhale
հայերեն: Քաղաք
हिन्दी: शहर
hornjoserbsce: Město
hrvatski: Grad
Ido: Urbo
Igbo: Okeama
Ilokano: Siudad
Bahasa Indonesia: Kota
interlingua: Citate
Interlingue: Cité
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓄᓇᓖᑦ
Ирон: Сахар
íslenska: Borg
italiano: Città
עברית: עיר
Basa Jawa: Kutha
ಕನ್ನಡ: ನಗರ
къарачай-малкъар: Шахар
ქართული: დიდი ქალაქი
қазақша: Қала
Kiswahili: Jiji
коми: Кар
Kreyòl ayisyen: Vil
kurdî: Bajar
Кыргызча: Шаар
Ladino: Sivdad
лакку: Шагьру
Latina: Urbs
latviešu: Pilsēta
Lëtzebuergesch: Stad
лезги: Шегьер
lietuvių: Miestas
Limburgs: Sjtad
lingála: Engumba
Livvinkarjala: Linnu
la .lojban.: tcadu
lumbaart: Cità
magyar: Város
मैथिली: शहर
македонски: Град
Malagasy: Tanàna
മലയാളം: നഗരം
Māori: Tāone
मराठी: शहर
مصرى: مدينه
مازِرونی: شهر
Bahasa Melayu: Bandar raya
Baso Minangkabau: Kota
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Siàng-chê
Mirandés: Cidade
монгол: Хот
Nāhuatl: Altepetl
Dorerin Naoero: Tekawa
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Siti
Nederlands: Stad
Nedersaksies: Stad (woonstee)
नेपाली: सहर
नेपाल भाषा: नगर
日本語: 都市
Napulitano: Cità
нохчийн: ГӀала
Nordfriisk: Stääd
Norfuk / Pitkern: Citii
norsk: By
norsk nynorsk: Storby
Nouormand: Cité
occitan: Vila
олык марий: Ола
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Shahar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸ਼ਹਿਰ
پنجابی: شہر
Patois: Siti
Plattdüütsch: Stadt
polski: Miasto
Ποντιακά: Πόλη
português: Cidade
qırımtatarca: Şeer
Ripoarisch: Stadt
română: Oraș
Romani: Foro
Runa Simi: Hatun llaqta
русиньскый: Місто
русский: Город
саха тыла: Куорат
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ
Scots: Ceety
shqip: Qyteti
sicilianu: Citati
සිංහල: නගර
Simple English: City
سنڌي: شهر
slovenčina: Mesto (všeobecne)
slovenščina: Mesto
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Градъ
ślůnski: Mjasto
Soomaaliga: Caasimad
کوردی: شار
српски / srpski: Град
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Grad
Basa Sunda: Kota
suomi: Kaupunki
svenska: Stad
Tagalog: Lungsod
தமிழ்: மாநகரம்
Taqbaylit: Aɣrem
tarandíne: Cetata granne
татарча/tatarça: Шәһәр
తెలుగు: నగరము
ไทย: นคร
тоҷикӣ: Шаҳр
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎦᏚᎲᎢ
Türkçe: Şehir
українська: Місто
اردو: شہر
vèneto: Sità
vepsän kel’: Lidn
Tiếng Việt: Thành phố
Võro: Liin
West-Vlams: Stad
Winaray: Syudad
吴语: 城市
Xitsonga: Dorobha
ייִדיש: שטאט
Yorùbá: Ìlú
粵語: 城市
Zazaki: Sûke
Zeêuws: Stad
žemaitėška: Miests
中文: 城市