Cincinnati

Cincinnati, Ohio
Losantiville (until 1790)
City
City of Cincinnati
Downtown Cincinnati from Devou Park, seen from across the Ohio River in Covington, Kentucky. The Carew Tower, the city's second-tallest building, is to the left, to its right is the PNC Tower. The stadium on the left is Paul Brown Stadium, home to the NFL's Cincinnati Bengals; on the right is the Great American Ball Park, home to MLB's Cincinnati Reds. The skyscraper at the right is the Great American Tower at Queen City Square, now the tallest building in the city and the third tallest in Ohio.
Downtown Cincinnati from Devou Park, seen from across the Ohio River in Covington, Kentucky. The Carew Tower, the city's second-tallest building, is to the left, to its right is the PNC Tower. The stadium on the left is Paul Brown Stadium, home to the NFL's Cincinnati Bengals; on the right is the Great American Ball Park, home to MLB's Cincinnati Reds. The skyscraper at the right is the Great American Tower at Queen City Square, now the tallest building in the city and the third tallest in Ohio.
Flag of Cincinnati, Ohio
Flag
Official seal of Cincinnati, Ohio
Seal
Nickname(s): The Queen City, Cincy, The Fountain City
Motto: Juncta Juvant ( Lat. Strength in Unity)
Location in Hamilton County and the state of Ohio.
Location in Hamilton County and the state of Ohio.
Cincinnati is located in the US
Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Location in the United States of America
Coordinates: 39°6′N 84°31′W / 39°6′N 84°31′W / 39.100; -84.517
Country United States
State Ohio
County Hamilton
Settled 1788
Incorporated 1802 as village / 1819 as city
Named for Society of the Cincinnati
Government
 • Type Mayor–council
 •  Mayor John Cranley ( D)
Area [1]
 • City 79.54 sq mi (206.01 km2)
 • Land 77.94 sq mi (201.86 km2)
 • Water 1.60 sq mi (4.14 km2)
Elevation 482 ft (147 m)
Population ( 2010) [2]
 • City 296,943
 • Estimate (2016) [3] 298,800
 • Rank US: 65th
 • Density 3,809.9/sq mi (1,471.0/km2)
 •  Urban 1,624,827 (US: 30th)
 •  Metro 2,137,406 (US: 28th)
 •  Demonym Cincinnatian
Time zone EST ( UTC-5)
 • Summer ( DST) EDT ( UTC-4)
ZIP codes
Area code 513
FIPS code 39-15000 [5]
GNIS feature ID 1066650 [6]
Website cincinnati-oh.gov

Cincinnati ( i/ SIN-si-NAT-ee) is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio that serves as county seat of Hamilton County. [7] Settled in 1788, the city is located on the north side of the confluence of the Licking with the Ohio River. With a population of 298,800, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and the 65th-largest city in the United States. Its metropolitan statistical area is the 28th-largest in the United States and the largest centered in Ohio. The city is also part of the larger Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census. [8]

In the 19th century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the heart of the country; it rivaled the larger coastal cities in size and wealth. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U.S. cities by population, surpassed only by New Orleans and the older, established settlements of the Eastern Seaboard; at one point holding the position of America's sixth-largest city for a period spanning consecutive census reports from 1840 until 1860. It was by far the largest city in the west. Because it is the first major American city founded after the American Revolution as well as the first major inland city in the country, Cincinnati is sometimes thought of as the first purely "American" city. [9]

Cincinnati developed with less European immigration or influence than eastern cities attracted in the same period; however, it received a significant number of German immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably. The city was surpassed in population by other inland cities, particularly Chicago, which developed based on commodity exploitation and the railroads, and St. Louis, for decades after the Civil War the gateway to westward migration.

Cincinnati is home to two major sports teams, the Cincinnati Reds, the oldest franchise in Major League Baseball, and the Cincinnati Bengals of the National Football League. The University of Cincinnati, founded in 1819, is one of the 50 largest in the United States. [10] Cincinnati is known for its historic architecture. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was commonly referred to as "Paris of America", due mainly to such ambitious architectural projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel, and Shillito Department Store. [11]

History

Cincinnati in 1812 with a population of 2,000 [12]

Cincinnati was founded in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson and Israel Ludlow landed at the spot on the north bank of the Ohio River opposite the mouth of the Licking River and decided to settle there. The original surveyor, John Filson, named it "Losantiville". [13] In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, made up of Revolutionary War veterans, of which he was a member. [14]

Ethnic Germans were among the early settlers, migrating from Pennsylvania and the backcountry of Virginia and Tennessee. General David Ziegler succeeded General St. Clair in command at Fort Washington. After the conclusion of the Northwest Indian Wars and removal of Native Americans to the west, he was elected as the mayor of Cincinnati in 1802. [15]

The introduction of steamboats on the Ohio River in 1811 opened up its trade to more rapid shipping, and the city established commercial ties with St. Louis, Missouri and especially New Orleans downriver. Cincinnati was incorporated as a city in 1819. Exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830 its population nearly tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831. [16] Completion of the Miami and Erie Canal in 1827 to Middletown, Ohio further stimulated businesses, and employers struggled to hire enough people to fill positions. The city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew rapidly over the next two decades, reaching 115,000 persons by 1850. [14]

Cincinnati in 1841 with the Miami and Erie Canal in the foreground.

Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River. The first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827. [17] In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown; by 1840, it had reached Toledo. During this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the "Queen City".

Cincinnati depended on trade with the slave states south of the Ohio River, at a time when thousands of blacks were settling in the free state of Ohio, most from Kentucky and Virginia and some of them fugitives seeking freedom in the North. Many came to find work in Cincinnati. In the antebellum years, the majority of native-born whites in the city came from northern states, primarily Pennsylvania. In 1841 26 percent of whites were from the South and 57 percent from the eastern states, primarily Pennsylvania. [18] They retained their cultural support for slavery. This led to tensions between pro-slavery residents and those in favor of abolitionism and lifting restrictions on free people of color, as codified in the "Black Code" of 1804. [19]

The volatile social conditions produced white-led riots against blacks in 1829, when many blacks lost their homes and property. As Irish immigrants entered the city in the late 1840s, they competed with blacks at the lower levels of the economy. White-led riots against blacks occurred in 1836, when an abolitionist press was twice destroyed; and in 1842. [19] More than one thousand blacks abandoned the city after the 1829 riots. Blacks in Philadelphia and other major cities raised money to help the refugees recover from the destruction. By 1842 blacks had become better established in the city; they defended their persons and property in the riot, and worked politically as well. [20]

After the steamboats, railroads were the next major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati. In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered. [21] Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, and provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay on Lake Erie. [17]

Cincinnati in 1862, a lithograph in Harper's Weekly.
The Tyler Davidson Fountain, a symbol of Cincinnati, was dedicated in 1871.

In 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines; the cars were pulled by horses and the lines made it easier for people to get around the city. [21] By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities. The Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people to the top of Mount Auburn that year. [17]

In 1880, the city government completed the Cincinnati Southern Railway to Chattanooga, Tennessee. It is the only municipality-owned interstate railway in the United States.

In 1884, outrage over a manslaughter verdict in what many observers thought was a clear case of murder triggered the Courthouse riots, one of the most destructive riots in American history. Over the course of three days, 56 people were killed and over 300 were injured. [22] The riots ended the regime of political bosses John Roll McLean and Thomas C. Campbell in Cincinnati. In 1889, the Cincinnati streetcar system began converting its horse-drawn cars to electric streetcars. [23]

An early rejuvenation of downtown began in the 1920s and continued into the next decade with the construction of Union Terminal, the post office, and the large Cincinnati and Suburban Telephone Company Building. Cincinnati weathered the Great Depression better than most American cities of its size, largely because of a resurgence in river trade, which was less expensive than transporting goods by rail. The flood of 1937 was one of the worst in the nation's history and destroyed many areas along the Ohio Valley. Afterward the city built protective flood walls.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Cincinnati
aragonés: Cincinnati
azərbaycanca: Sinsinnati
تۆرکجه: سینسینتی
Bân-lâm-gú: Cincinnati
беларуская: Горад Цынцынаці
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Цынцынаці
български: Синсинати
brezhoneg: Cincinnati
català: Cincinnati
čeština: Cincinnati
Cymraeg: Cincinnati
dansk: Cincinnati
Deutsch: Cincinnati
eesti: Cincinnati
Ελληνικά: Σινσινάτι
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Cincinnati
español: Cincinnati
Esperanto: Cincinnati
euskara: Cincinnati
français: Cincinnati
Frysk: Cincinnati
Gàidhlig: Cincinnati, Ohio
한국어: 신시내티
Հայերեն: Ցինցինատի
Bahasa Indonesia: Cincinnati, Ohio
interlingua: Cincinnati (Ohio)
italiano: Cincinnati
עברית: סינסינטי
Basa Jawa: Cincinnati
ქართული: ცინცინატი
Kiswahili: Cincinnati, Ohio
Kreyòl ayisyen: Cincinnati, Ohio
Latina: Cincinnati
latviešu: Sinsinati
lietuvių: Sinsinatis
magyar: Cincinnati
Malagasy: Cincinnati
Bahasa Melayu: Cincinnati
монгол: Цинциннати
Nederlands: Cincinnati
нохчийн: Цинциннати
norsk bokmål: Cincinnati
norsk nynorsk: Cincinnati
occitan: Cincinnati
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Cincinnati
Piemontèis: Cincinnati
polski: Cincinnati
português: Cincinnati
Ripoarisch: Cincinnati
română: Cincinnati
русский: Цинциннати
саха тыла: Цинциннати
sardu: Cincinnati
Scots: Cincinnati
Seeltersk: Cincinnati
sicilianu: Cincinnati
Simple English: Cincinnati
slovenčina: Cincinnati
ślůnski: Cincinnati
српски / srpski: Синсинати
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Cincinnati, Ohio
suomi: Cincinnati
svenska: Cincinnati
Türkçe: Cincinnati
українська: Цинциннаті
vepsän kel’: Cincinnati
Tiếng Việt: Cincinnati
Winaray: Cincinnati
粵語: 辛辛那提
中文: 辛辛那提