Chloroplast

Chloroplasts visible in the cells of Bryum capillare, a type of moss
Structure of a typical higher-plant chloroplast
Structure of a typical higher-plant chloroplast

Chloroplasts s/[1][2] are organelles that conduct photosynthesis, where the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll captures the energy from sunlight, converts it, and stores it in the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH while freeing oxygen from water in plant and algal cells. They then use the ATP and NADPH to make organic molecules from carbon dioxide in a process known as the Calvin cycle. Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune response in plants. The number of chloroplasts per cell varies from one, in unicellular algae, up to 100 in plants like Arabidopsis and wheat.

A chloroplast is a type of organelle known as a plastid, characterized by its two membranes and a high concentration of chlorophyll. Other plastid types, such as the leucoplast and the chromoplast, contain little chlorophyll and do not carry out photosynthesis.

Chloroplasts are highly dynamic—they circulate and are moved around within plant cells, and occasionally pinch in two to reproduce. Their behavior is strongly influenced by environmental factors like light color and intensity. Chloroplasts, like mitochondria, contain their own DNA, which is thought to be inherited from their ancestor—a photosynthetic cyanobacterium that was engulfed by an early eukaryotic cell. Chloroplasts cannot be made by the plant cell and must be inherited by each daughter cell during cell division.

With one exception (the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora), all chloroplasts can probably be traced back to a single endosymbiotic event, when a cyanobacterium was engulfed by the eukaryote. Despite this, chloroplasts can be found in an extremely wide set of organisms, some not even directly related to each other—a consequence of many secondary and even tertiary endosymbiotic events.

The word chloroplast is derived from the Greek words chloros (χλωρός), which means green, and plastes (πλάστης), which means "the one who forms".[3]

Discovery

The first definitive description of a chloroplast (Chlorophyllkörnen, "grain of chlorophyll") was given by Hugo von Mohl in 1837 as discrete bodies within the green plant cell.[4] In 1883, A. F. W. Schimper would name these bodies as "chloroplastids" (Chloroplastiden).[5] In 1884, Eduard Strasburger adopted the term "chloroplasts" (Chloroplasten).[6][7][8]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Chloroplas
azərbaycanca: Xloroplastlar
Bân-lâm-gú: Ia̍p-le̍k-thé
беларуская: Хларапласты
български: Хлоропласт
bosanski: Hloroplast
català: Cloroplast
Cebuano: Chloroplasts
čeština: Chloroplast
dansk: Grønkorn
Deutsch: Chloroplast
eesti: Kloroplast
Ελληνικά: Χλωροπλάστης
español: Cloroplasto
Esperanto: Kloroplasto
euskara: Kloroplasto
فارسی: کلروپلاست
français: Chloroplaste
Gaeilge: Clóraplast
galego: Cloroplasto
한국어: 엽록체
հայերեն: Քլորոպլաստ
हिन्दी: हरितलवक
hrvatski: Kloroplast
Bahasa Indonesia: Kloroplas
íslenska: Grænukorn
italiano: Cloroplasto
עברית: כלורופלסט
ქართული: ქლოროპლასტი
қазақша: Хлоропласт
Kiswahili: Kloroplasti
Kreyòl ayisyen: Klowoplast
kurdî: Kloroplast
Кыргызча: Хлоропласттар
latviešu: Hloroplasts
lietuvių: Chloroplastas
Lingua Franca Nova: Cloroplasto
македонски: Хлоропласт
მარგალური: ქლოროპლასტი
Bahasa Melayu: Kloroplas
Nederlands: Chloroplast
नेपाल भाषा: क्लोरोप्लास्ट
日本語: 葉緑体
Nordfriisk: Chloroplast
norsk: Kloroplast
norsk nynorsk: Kloroplast
occitan: Cloroplast
Plattdüütsch: Chloroplast
polski: Chloroplast
português: Cloroplasto
română: Cloroplast
русский: Хлоропласты
Seeltersk: Chloroplast
සිංහල: හරිතලව
Simple English: Chloroplast
slovenčina: Chloroplast
slovenščina: Kloroplast
српски / srpski: Хлоропласт
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Hloroplast
Sunda: Kloroplas
svenska: Kloroplast
Türkçe: Kloroplast
українська: Хлоропласт
Tiếng Việt: Lục lạp
中文: 叶绿体