China

People's Republic of China
  • 中华人民共和国
  • Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
Anthem: 

Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
Capital Beijing [a]
39°55′N 116°23′E / 39°55′N 116°23′E / 39.917; 116.383
Largest city Shanghai [1]
Official languages Standard Chinese [2] [b]
Official script Simplified Chinese [c]
Recognised regional
languages [3]
Ethnic groups
Religion See Religion in China
Demonym Chinese
Government Unitary one-party socialist republic [5]
Xi Jinping [e]
•  Premier
Li Keqiang
Zhang Dejiang
Yu Zhengsheng
• First Secretary of the Party Secretariat
Liu Yunshan
Wang Qishan
• First Vice Premier
Zhang Gaoli
Legislature National People's Congress
Formation
c. 2070 BCE
221 BCE
1 January 1912
21 September 1949 [7] [8] [9]
1 October 1949
4 December 1982
20 December 1999
Area
• Total
9,596,961 km2 (3,705,407 sq mi) [f] ( 3rd/4th)
• Water (%)
2.8% [g]
Population
• 2016 estimate
1,403,500,365 Increase [13] ( 1st)
• 2010 census
1,339,724,852 [14] ( 1st)
• Density
145 [15]/km2 (375.5/sq mi) ( 83rd)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$23.2 trillion [16] ( 1st)
• Per capita
$16,676 [16] ( 83rd)
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$11.8 trillion [16] ( 2nd)
• Per capita
$8,481 [16] ( 72nd)
Gini (2015) 46.2 [17]
high
HDI (2015) Increase 0.738 [18]
high ·  90th
Currency Renminbi (yuan; ¥) [h] ( CNY)
Time zone China Standard Time ( UTC +8)
Date format
  • yyyy-mm-dd
  • or yyyymd
  • ( CE; CE-1949)
Drives on the right [i]
Calling code +86
ISO 3166 code CN
Internet TLD

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. [13] Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area [19] and third- or fourth-largest by total area. [j] Governed by the Communist Party of China, it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing) and the Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau, also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower. [20] [21]

China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty. Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times. In 1912, the Republic of China (ROC) replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist People's Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War. The Communist Party established the People's Republic of China in Beijing on 21 September 1949, while the ROC government retreated to Taiwan with its present de facto capital in Taipei. Both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory.

Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing. As of 2016, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. [22] China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget. [23] [24] The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council in 1971. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the BCIM and the G20.

Names

China
China (Chinese characters).svg
"China" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
PRC (Chinese characters.svg
"People's Republic of China" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 中国
Traditional Chinese 中國
Literal meaning "Middle Kingdom" [25] or "Central State" [26]
People's Republic of China
Simplified Chinese 中华人民共和国
Traditional Chinese 中華人民共和國
Tibetan name
Tibetan ཀྲུང་ཧྭ་མི་དམངས་སྤྱི
མཐུན་རྒྱལ་ཁབ
Zhuang name
Zhuang Cunghvaz Yinzminz Gunghozgoz
Mongolian name
Mongolian Bügüde nayiramdaqu dumdadu arad ulus, ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
Uyghur name
Uyghur
جۇڭخۇا خەلق جۇمھۇرىيىت
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡩᡡᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ
Romanization Dulimbai Gurun

The English word "China" is first attested in Richard Eden's 1555 translation [k] of a 1516 journal by Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. [l] [31] The Portuguese word was derived from Persian Chīnī ( چین) and some traced it further to Sanskrit Cīna ( चीन). [32] The earliest known example of Cīna being used to refer to China dates from AD 150. [33] Although Indian writers may not have been aware of China's existence prior to the first century BC, [34] the word Cīna appears in Mahābhārata, as well as in the Laws of Manu. [35] In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC), [36] a proposal supported by many later scholars, [37] [38] [39] although there are also a number of alternative suggestions. [35] [40]

The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China" ( Chinese: 中华人民共和国; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó). The shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó ( 中国), from zhōng ("central" or "middle") and guó ("state, nation-state"), [26] [m] a term which developed under the Zhou Dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. [n] It was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing. [42] It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia tribes from perceived "barbarians" [42] and was the source of the English name "Middle Kingdom". [44] [45] A more literary or inclusive name, alluding to the "land of Chinese civilization", is Zhōnghuá ( 中华). [46] It developed during the Wei and Jin dynasties as a contraction of "the central state of the Huaxia". [42] Before the PRC's establishment, the proposed name of the country was the People's Democratic Republic of China ( simplified Chinese: 中华 人民 共和国; traditional Chinese: 中華 人民 共和國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Mínzhǔ Gònghéguó) during the first CPPCC held on 15 June 1949. [47] [48] During the 1950s and 1960s, after the defeat of the Kuomintang in the Chinese Civil War, it was also referred to as "Communist China" or "Red China", to be differentiated from "Nationalist China" or " Free China". [49]

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Китай
Akan: China
Alemannisch: Volksrepublik China
العربية: الصين
অসমীয়া: চীন
авар: Чин
تۆرکجه: چین
bamanankan: China
বাংলা: গণচীন
беларуская: Кітай
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кітай
भोजपुरी: चीन
Bislama: Jaena
български: Китай
Boarisch: Kina
bosanski: Kina
Chavacano de Zamboanga: China
Chi-Chewa: China
chiShona: China (nyika)
chiTumbuka: China
corsu: China
dansk: Kina
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސީނުކަރަ
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Cina
eʋegbe: China
Fiji Hindi: China
français: Chine
Frysk: Sina
Fulfulde: Ciina
Gĩkũyũ: China
ગુજરાતી: ચીન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: चीन
Hausa: Sin
Hawaiʻi: Kina
Հայերեն: Չինաստան
hornjoserbsce: China
hrvatski: Kina
Ilokano: Tsina
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: গণচীন
Bahasa Indonesia: Republik Rakyat Tiongkok
interlingua: China
Interlingue: China
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: China
Ирон: Китай
isiXhosa: IShayina
isiZulu: IShayina
italiano: Cina
kalaallisut: Kina
къарачай-малкъар: Къытай Халкъ Республика
ქართული: ჩინეთი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: چیٖن
Kinyarwanda: Ubushinwa
коми: Китай
Kongo: Sina
Kreyòl ayisyen: Chin
Kurdî: Çîn
Кыргызча: Кытай
latviešu: Ķīna
Lëtzebuergesch: Volleksrepublik China
Limburgs: China
lingála: Sína
Livvinkarjala: Kitai
lumbaart: Cina
magyar: Kína
മലയാളം: ചൈന
Malti: Ċina
Māori: Haina
मराठी: चीन
მარგალური: ჩინეთი
مصرى: الصين
مازِرونی: چین
Bahasa Melayu: Republik Rakyat China
Baso Minangkabau: Republik Rakyaik Cino
Mirandés: China
мокшень: Китай
монгол: Хятад улс
Nāhuatl: China
Dorerin Naoero: Tsiene
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Jaina (matanitu)
Nedersaksies: Volksrippebliek China
नेपाल भाषा: चीन
Napulitano: Cina
Nordfriisk: China
Norfuk / Pitkern: Shiina
norsk nynorsk: Folkerepublikken Kina
олык марий: Китай
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଚୀନ
Oromoo: Chaayinaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Xitoy
پنجابی: چین
Papiamentu: China
Перем Коми: Кина
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ចិន
Piemontèis: Cin-a
Plattdüütsch: Volksrepubliek China
Ποντιακά: Κίνα
português: China
Qaraqalpaqsha: Qıtay
qırımtatarca: Çin Halq Cumhuriyeti
reo tahiti: Tinitō
davvisámegiella: Kiinná
Gagana Samoa: Saina
Sängö: Sînä
sardu: Cina
Sesotho: Tjhaena
Sesotho sa Leboa: Tšhaena
shqip: Kina
sicilianu: Cina
සිංහල: චීනය
سنڌي: چين
SiSwati: IShayina
slovenčina: Čína
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Срѣдинꙗнє
Soomaaliga: Shiinaha
Sranantongo: Sneysa
српски / srpski: Кина
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kina
suomi: Kiina
svenska: Kina
Tagalog: Tsina
தமிழ்: சீனா
Taqbaylit: Ccinwa
татарча/tatarça: Кытай
తెలుగు: చైనా
tetun: Xina
lea faka-Tonga: Siaina
Türkçe: Çin
Twi: China
тыва дыл: Кыдат
удмурт: Китай
اردو: چین
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: جۇڭخۇا خەلق جۇمھۇرىيىتى
vepsän kel’: Kitai
Tiếng Việt: Trung Quốc
Volapük: Tsyinän
West-Vlams: China
Xitsonga: Chayina
ייִדיש: כינע
डोटेली: चीन देश
Kabɩyɛ: Siini