People's Republic of China
Land controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled land shown in light green.
Capital Beijing [a] 39°55′N 116°23′E / 39°55′N 116°23′E / 39.917; 116.383 Largest city Shanghai  Official languages Standard Chinese  [b] Recognised regional languages Official script Simplified Chinese [c] Ethnic groups Religion See Religion in China Demonym(s) Chinese Government Unitary one-party socialist republic  Xi Jinping [e] Li Keqiang Li Zhanshu Wang Yang Wang Huning Zhao Leji Han Zheng Wang Qishan [f] Legislature National People's Congress Formation c. 2070 BCE 221 BCE 1 January 1912 1 October 1949 4 December 1982 20 December 1999 Area
9,596,961 km 2 (3,705,407 sq mi) ( [g] ) 3rd/4th
• Water (%)
2.8% [h] Population
• 2016 estimate
1,403,500,365 (  ) 1st
• 2010 census
1,339,724,852 (  ) 1st
145 /km  2 (375.5/sq mi) ( ) 83rd GDP ( ) PPP 2019 estimate
$27.331 trillion (  ) 1st
• Per capita
$19,520 (  ) 73rd GDP (nominal) 2019 estimate
$14.216 trillion (  ) 2nd
• Per capita
$10,153 (  ) 67th Gini (2015) 46.2  high HDI (2017) 0.752  · high 86th Currency (yuan; ¥) Renminbi ( [i] ) CNY Time zone ( UTC +8 ) China Standard Time Date format Driving side right [j] Calling code +86 ISO 3166 code CN Internet TLD China ( : Chinese ; 中国 : pinyin ; lit. "Middle Kingdom"), officially the Zhōngguó People's Republic of China ( PRC), is a country in and the East Asia , with a population of around world's most populous country . 1.404 billion Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area.  [k] Governed by the  , the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 Communist Party of China , five provinces , four autonomous regions ( direct-controlled municipalities , Beijing , Tianjin , and Shanghai ), and the Chongqing of special administrative regions and Hong Kong . Macau
China emerged as one of the world's
, in the fertile basin of the earliest civilizations in the Yellow River . For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or North China Plain , beginning with the semi-legendary dynasties in 21st century Xia dynasty . BCE Since then, China has  numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, expanded, fractured, and re-unified and established the Qin reunited core China . The succeeding the first Chinese empire , which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the Han dynasty at that time, including most advanced technology and the papermaking , compass along with agricultural and medical improvements. The invention of  and gunpowder in the movable type (618–907) and Tang dynasty (960–1127) completed the Northern Song . Tang culture spread widely in Asia, as the new Four Great Inventions brought traders to as far as Silk Route and the Mesopotamia . Horn of Africa Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the  , when the Xinhai Revolution replaced the republic . China as a whole was ravaged by Qing dynasty during Japan , and the subsequent World War II resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Chinese Civil War established the People's Republic of China, a Communist Party of China unitary one-party on sovereign state , while the the majority of China -led nationalist government retreated to the island of Kuomintang . The Taiwan remains disputed. political status of Taiwan
Since the introduction of
, economic reforms in 1978 has been one of the world's China's economy with annual growth rates consistently above 6 percent. fastest-growing According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017.  According to official data, China's GDP in 2018 was 90 trillion Yuan ($13.28 trillion).  Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by  nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by  (PPP). purchasing power parity China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods.  China is a recognized  and has the world's nuclear weapons state and largest standing army . second-largest defense budget  The PRC is a  of the permanent member as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of United Nations Security Council . China is also a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the ASEAN Plus mechanism , Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) , WTO , APEC , the BRICS , and the BCIM . China has been characterized as a G20 , mainly because of its massive population, economy, and military. potential superpower   
The word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves. It has been traced through
, Portuguese , and Malay back to the Sanskrit word Persian Cīna, used in ancient India.
"China" appears in
's 1555 translation Richard Eden of the 1516 journal of the [l] Portuguese explorer . Duarte Barbosa [m] Barbosa's usage was derived from  Persian Chīn ( ), which was in turn derived from چین Sanskrit ( Cīna ). चीन  Cīna was first used in early scripture, including the Hindu (5th century Mahābhārata ) and the BCE (2nd century Laws of Manu ). BCE In 1655,  suggested that the word China is derived ultimately from the name of the Martino Martini (221–206 BC). Qin dynasty Although this derivation is still given in various sources,  it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature. The word may have originally referred to a state such as  . Later, the meaning transferred to China as a whole. Yelang  The origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the  Oxford English Dictionary.
The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China" (
: Chinese ; 中华人民共和国 : pinyin ). The shorter form is "China" Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Zhōngguó ( from ), 中国 ("central") and zhōng ("state"), guó a term which developed under the [n] dynasty in reference to its Western Zhou . royal demesne It was then applied to the area around [o] (present-day Luoyang) during the Luoyi and then to China's Eastern Zhou before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Central Plain . Qing It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the  people from Huaxia . perceived "barbarians" The name  Zhongguo is also translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Chavacano de Zamboanga:
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni:
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: