China

People's Republic of China
  • 中华人民共和国
  • Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
Anthem: 
Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
CapitalBeijing[a]
39°55′N 116°23′E / 39°55′N 116°23′E / 39.917; 116.383
Largest cityShanghai[1]
Official languagesStandard Chinese[2][b]
Official scriptSimplified Chinese[c]
Recognised regional
languages[3]
Ethnic groups
ReligionSee Religion in China
DemonymChinese
GovernmentUnitary one-party socialist republic[5]
Xi Jinping[e]
• Premier
Li Keqiang
Li Zhanshu
Wang Yang
• First Secretary of the Party Secretariat
Wang Huning
Zhao Leji
• First Vice Premier
Han Zheng
Wang Qishan[f]
LegislatureNational People's Congress
Formation
221 BCE
1 January 1912
21 September 1949[7][8][9]
1 October 1949
4 December 1982
20 December 1999
Area
• Total
9,596,961 km2 (3,705,407 sq mi)[g] (3rd/4th)
• Water (%)
2.8%[h]
Population
• 2016 estimate
1,403,500,365 Increase[13] (1st)
• 2010 census
1,339,724,852[14] (1st)
• Density
145[15]/km2 (375.5/sq mi) (83rd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$25.238 trillion[16] (1st)
• Per capita
$18,066[16] (79th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$14.092 trillion[16] (2nd)
• Per capita
$10,087[16] (71st)
Gini (2015)46.2[17]
high
HDI (2016)Increase 0.738[18]
high · 90th
CurrencyRenminbi (yuan; ¥)[i] (CNY)
Time zoneChina Standard Time (UTC+8)
Date format
Drives on theright[j]
Calling code+86
ISO 3166 codeCN
Internet TLD

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. Governed by the Communist Party of China, it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE.[20] Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin unified core China and established the first Chinese dynasty. The succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass,[21] along with agricultural and medical improvements. The invention of gunpowder and printing in the Tang dynasty (618 - 907) completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread widely in Asia, as the new maritime Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Somalia.[22] Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution, as a republic replaced the Qing dynasty. The Chinese Civil War led to the break up of the country in 1949, with the victorious Communist Party of China founding the People’s Republic of China on the mainland while the losing Kuomintang retreated to Taiwan, a dispute which is still unresolved.

Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates consistently above 6 percent.[23] As of 2016, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP).[24] China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods.[25] China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget.[26][27][28] The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the UN Security Council in 1971. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the ASEAN Plus mechanism, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the BCIM, and the G20. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.[29][30]

Names

China
China (Chinese characters).svg
"China" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
PRC (Chinese characters.svg
"People's Republic of China" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 中国
Traditional Chinese 中國
Literal meaning "Middle Kingdom"[31] or "Central State"[32]
People's Republic of China
Simplified Chinese 中华人民共和国
Traditional Chinese 中華人民共和國
Tibetan name
Tibetan ཀྲུང་ཧྭ་མི་དམངས་སྤྱི
མཐུན་རྒྱལ་ཁབ
Zhuang name
Zhuang Cunghvaz Yinzminz Gunghozgoz
Mongolian name
Mongolian Bügüde nayiramdaqu dumdadu arad ulus, ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
Uyghur name
Uyghur
جۇڭخۇا خەلق جۇمھۇرىيىتى
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳ
ᠨᡳᠶᠠᠯᠮᠠᡳᡵᡤᡝᠨ
ᡤᡠᠨᡥᡝ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ
(ᡩᡡᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ)
Romanization Dulimbai niyalmairgen gungheg' gurun(Dulimbai Gurun)

The English word "China" is first attested in Richard Eden's 1555 translation[l] of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.[m][37] The demonym, that is, the name for the people, and adjectival form "Chinese" developed later on the model of Portuguese chinês and French chinois.[38][n] Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn (چین), and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna (चीन).[40] Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata (5th century BCE) and the Laws of Manu (2nd century BCE).[41] In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC),[42] a proposal supported by many later scholars,[43][44][45] although there are also a number of alternative suggestions.[41][46]

The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China" (Chinese: 中华人民共和国; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó). The shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó (中国), from zhōng ("central") and guó ("state"),[32][o] a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne.[p] It was then applied to the area around Luoyi (present-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing.[48] It was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians"[48] and was the source of the English name "Middle Kingdom".[50][51] A more literary or inclusive name, alluding to the "land of Chinese civilization", is Zhōnghuá (中华).[52] It developed during the Wei and Jin dynasties as a contraction of "the central state of the Huaxia".[48] Before the PRC's establishment, the proposed name of the country was the People's Democratic Republic of China (simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国; traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Mínzhǔ Gònghéguó) during the first CPPCC held on 15 June 1949.[53][54] During the 1950s and 1960s, after the defeat of the Kuomintang in the Chinese Civil War, it was also referred to as "Communist China" or "Red China", to be differentiated from "Nationalist China" or "Free China".[55]

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Китай
Akan: China
Alemannisch: Volksrepublik China
العربية: الصين
অসমীয়া: চীন
авар: Чин
تۆرکجه: چین
bamanankan: China
বাংলা: গণচীন
Bahasa Banjar: Ripublik Rakyat Cina
беларуская: Кітай
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кітай
भोजपुरी: चीन
Bislama: Jaena
български: Китай
Boarisch: Kina
bosanski: Kina
Chamoru: China
Chavacano de Zamboanga: China
Chi-Chewa: China
chiShona: China (nyika)
chiTumbuka: China
corsu: China
dansk: Kina
davvisámegiella: Kiinná
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސީނުކަރަ
eesti: Hiina
Ελληνικά: Κίνα
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Cina
Esperanto: Ĉinio (Ŝtato)
eʋegbe: China
فارسی: چین
Fiji Hindi: China
français: Chine
Frysk: Sina
Fulfulde: Ciina
Gĩkũyũ: China
ગુજરાતી: ચીન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: चीन
Hausa: Sin
Hawaiʻi: Kina
Հայերեն: Չինաստան
hornjoserbsce: China
hrvatski: Kina
Ilokano: Tsina
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: গণচীন
Bahasa Indonesia: Republik Rakyat Tiongkok
interlingua: China
Interlingue: China
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓴᐃᓇ
Ирон: Китай
isiXhosa: IShayina
isiZulu: IShayina
italiano: Cina
kalaallisut: Kina
къарачай-малкъар: Къытай Халкъ Республика
ქართული: ჩინეთი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: چیٖن
Kinyarwanda: Ubushinwa
коми: Китай
Kongo: Sina
Kreyòl ayisyen: Chin
kurdî: Çîn
Кыргызча: Кытай
latviešu: Ķīna
Lëtzebuergesch: Volleksrepublik China
Ligure: Cinn-a
Limburgs: China
lingála: Sína
Livvinkarjala: Kitai
lumbaart: Cina
magyar: Kína
മലയാളം: ചൈന
Malti: Ċina
Māori: Haina
मराठी: चीन
მარგალური: ჩინეთი
مصرى: الصين
مازِرونی: چین
Bahasa Melayu: Republik Rakyat China
Baso Minangkabau: Republik Rakyaik Cino
Mirandés: China
мокшень: Китай
монгол: Хятад улс
Nāhuatl: China
Dorerin Naoero: Tsiene
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Jaina (matanitu)
Nedersaksies: Volksrippebliek China
नेपाल भाषा: चीन
Napulitano: Cina
Nordfriisk: China
Norfuk / Pitkern: Shiina
norsk nynorsk: Folkerepublikken Kina
олык марий: Китай
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଚୀନ
Oromoo: Chaayinaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Xitoy
پنجابی: چین
Papiamentu: China
Перем Коми: Кина
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ចិន
Piemontèis: Cin-a
Plattdüütsch: Volksrepubliek China
Ποντιακά: Κίνα
português: China
Qaraqalpaqsha: Qıtay
qırımtatarca: Çin Halq Cumhuriyeti
reo tahiti: Tinitō
Romani: China
Gagana Samoa: Saina
Sängö: Sînä
sardu: Cina
Sesotho: Tjhaena
Sesotho sa Leboa: Tšhaena
shqip: Kina
sicilianu: Cina
සිංහල: චීනය
سنڌي: چين
SiSwati: IShayina
slovenčina: Čína
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Срѣдинꙗнє
Soomaaliga: Shiinaha
Sranantongo: Sneysa
српски / srpski: Кина
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kina
suomi: Kiina
svenska: Kina
Tagalog: Tsina
தமிழ்: சீனா
Taqbaylit: Ccinwa
татарча/tatarça: Кытай
తెలుగు: చైనా
tetun: Xina
lea faka-Tonga: Siaina
Türkçe: Çin
Twi: China
тыва дыл: Кыдат
удмурт: Китай
اردو: چین
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: جۇڭخۇا خەلق جۇمھۇرىيىتى
vepsän kel’: Kitai
Tiếng Việt: Trung Quốc
Volapük: Tsyinän
West-Vlams: China
Xitsonga: Chayina
ייִדיש: כינע
डोटेली: चीन देश
ГӀалгӀай: Чинхойче
Kabɩyɛ: Siini
Lingua Franca Nova: Xina