Chile

Republic of Chile
República de Chile  (Spanish)
Motto: 
  • Por la razón o la fuerza
  • (English: "By Right or Might") [1]
Location of  Chile  (dark green)in South America  (grey)
Location of  Chile  (dark green)

in South America  (grey)

Capital
and largest city
Santiagoa
33°26′S 70°40′W / 33°26′S 70°40′W / -33.433; -70.667
National languageSpanish
Ethnic groups (2012[2])
DemonymChilean
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Sebastián Piñera
Carlos Montes Cisternas
Maya Fernández
LegislatureNational Congress
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Independence from Spain
September 18, 1810
• Declared
February 12, 1818
• Recognized
April 25, 1844
September 11, 1980
Area
• Total
756,096.3[3] km2 (291,930.4 sq mi) (37th)
• Water (%)
1.07b
Population
• 2017 census
17,574,003[4] (64th)
• Density
24/km2 (62.2/sq mi) (198th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$477 billion[5] (42nd)
• Per capita
$25,668[5] (53rd)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$280 billion[5] (38th)
• Per capita
$15,087[5] (41st)
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 47.7[6]
high
HDI (2017)Steady 0.843[7]
very high · 44th
CurrencyPeso (CLP)
Time zoneUTC−3 and −5 (CLT and EASTc)
Drives on theright
Calling code+56
ISO 3166 codeCL
Internet TLD.cl
  1. Legislature is based in Valparaíso.
  2. Includes Easter Island and Isla Sala y Gómez; does not include 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of territory claimed in Antarctica.

Chile (i/ (About this sound listen);[8] Spanish: [ˈtʃile]), officially the Republic of Chile (Spanish: About this sound República de Chile ), is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

The arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The relatively small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, and is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands.[9]

Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific (1879–83) after defeating Peru and Bolivia.[10] In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. This development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing.[11] The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.

Chile is today one of South America's most economically and socially stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards.[11][12] It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption.[13] It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, and democratic development.[14] Chile is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), joining in 2010. Currently it also has the lowest homicide rate in South America. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC).

Etymology

There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales,[15] the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief ("cacique") called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.[16][17] Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili.[17]

Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls";[18] from the Mapuche word chilli, which may mean "where the land ends;"[19] or from the Quechua chiri, "cold",[20] or tchili, meaning either "snow"[20][21] or "the deepest point of the Earth".[22] Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile.[19][23]

The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, and the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli".[19] Ultimately, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such.[17] The older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile".[24]

Other Languages
Acèh: Chili
Адыгэбзэ: Чили
адыгабзэ: Чили
Afrikaans: Chili
Akan: Chile
Alemannisch: Chile
አማርኛ: ቺሌ
Ænglisc: Cile
Аҧсшәа: Чили
العربية: تشيلي
aragonés: Chile
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܬܫܝܠܝ
armãneashti: Cile
arpetan: Ch·ili
অসমীয়া: চিলি
asturianu: Chile
Avañe'ẽ: Chíle
авар: Чили
Aymar aru: Chili
azərbaycanca: Çili
تۆرکجه: شیلی
bamanankan: Chile
বাংলা: চিলি
Bahasa Banjar: Cili
Bân-lâm-gú: Chile
Basa Banyumasan: Chile
башҡортса: Чили
беларуская: Чылі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Чылі
भोजपुरी: चिली
Bikol Central: Tsile
Bislama: Chile
български: Чили
Boarisch: Chile
བོད་ཡིག: ཅི་ལི།
bosanski: Čile
brezhoneg: Chile
буряад: Чили
català: Xile
Чӑвашла: Чили
Cebuano: Chile
čeština: Chile
Chamoru: Chile
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Chile
Chi-Chewa: Chile
chiShona: Chile
chiTumbuka: Chile
corsu: Cile
Cymraeg: Tsile
dansk: Chile
davvisámegiella: Chile
Deitsch: Chile
Deutsch: Chile
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޗިލީ
dolnoserbski: Chilska
ཇོང་ཁ: ཅི་ལེ
eesti: Tšiili
Ελληνικά: Χιλή
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Cîl
эрзянь: Чили Мастор
español: Chile
Esperanto: Ĉilio
estremeñu: Chili
euskara: Txile
eʋegbe: Chile
فارسی: شیلی
Fiji Hindi: Chile
føroyskt: Kili
français: Chili
Frysk: Sily
Fulfulde: Ciile
furlan: Cile
Gaeilge: An tSile
Gagauz: Çili
Gàidhlig: An t-Sile
galego: Chile
贛語: 智利
Gĩkũyũ: Chile
گیلکی: شيلي
ગુજરાતી: ચીલી
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍄𐍃𐌾𐌹𐌻𐌴𐌹
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: चिली
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Chile
한국어: 칠레
Hausa: Chile
Hawaiʻi: Chile
հայերեն: Չիլի
हिन्दी: चिली
hornjoserbsce: Chilska
hrvatski: Čile
Ido: Chili
Igbo: Chile
Ilokano: Chile
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: চিলি
Bahasa Indonesia: Chili
interlingua: Chile
Interlingue: Chile
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓯᓕ
Iñupiak: Cili
Ирон: Чили
isiXhosa: IChile
isiZulu: ITshile
íslenska: Síle
italiano: Cile
עברית: צ'ילה
Basa Jawa: Cilé
kalaallisut: Chile
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಚಿಲಿ
Kapampangan: Chile
къарачай-малкъар: Чили
ქართული: ჩილე
kaszëbsczi: Chile
қазақша: Чили
kernowek: Chile
Kinyarwanda: Shili
Kirundi: Chili
Kiswahili: Chile
коми: Чили
Kongo: Chile
Kreyòl ayisyen: Chili
kurdî: Şîle
Кыргызча: Чили
кырык мары: Чили
Ladino: Chile
лакку: Чилй
лезги: Чили
لۊری شومالی: شیلی
latgaļu: Čile
Latina: Chilia
latviešu: Čīle
Lëtzebuergesch: Chile
lietuvių: Čilė
Ligure: Cile
Limburgs: Chili
lingála: Shíle
Livvinkarjala: Čili
la .lojban.: tciles
Luganda: Chile
lumbaart: Cile
magyar: Chile
मैथिली: चिली
македонски: Чиле
Malagasy: Silia
മലയാളം: ചിലി
Malti: Ċili
Māori: Hiri
मराठी: चिली
მარგალური: ჩილე
مصرى: تشيلى
مازِرونی: شیلی
Bahasa Melayu: Chile
Baso Minangkabau: Chili
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Chile
Mirandés: Chile
мокшень: Чиле
монгол: Чили
Nāhuatl: Chile
Dorerin Naoero: Tsire
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Chile
Nederlands: Chili
Nedersaksies: Chili
नेपाली: चिली
नेपाल भाषा: चिली
日本語: チリ
Napulitano: Cile
нохчийн: Чили
Nordfriisk: Chiile
Norfuk / Pitkern: Chili
norsk: Chile
norsk nynorsk: Chile
Nouormand: Chili
Novial: Chile
occitan: Chile
олык марий: Чили
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଚିଲି
Oromoo: Chiilii
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Chili
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਚਿਲੀ
पालि: चिले
Pälzisch: Chile
Pangasinan: Chile
پنجابی: چلی
Papiamentu: Chile
پښتو: چېلي
Patois: Chili
Перем Коми: Чили
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ឈីលី
Picard: Kili
Piemontèis: Cile
Tok Pisin: Sili
Plattdüütsch: Chile
polski: Chile
Ποντιακά: Χιλε
português: Chile
Qaraqalpaqsha: Chili
qırımtatarca: Çile
reo tahiti: Tīri
Ripoarisch: Chile
română: Chile
Romani: Chile
rumantsch: Chile
Runa Simi: Chili
русиньскый: Чіле
русский: Чили
саха тыла: Чиили
Gagana Samoa: Shili
संस्कृतम्: चिलि
Sängö: Shilïi
sardu: Cile
Scots: Chile
Seeltersk: Chile
Sesotho: Chile
Sesotho sa Leboa: Chile
Setswana: Chile
shqip: Kili
sicilianu: Cili
Simple English: Chile
سنڌي: چلي
SiSwati: IShile
slovenčina: Čile
slovenščina: Čile
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Чилє
ślůnski: Czile
Soomaaliga: Jili
کوردی: چیلی
Sranantongo: Sili
српски / srpski: Чиле
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Čile
Basa Sunda: Cilé
suomi: Chile
svenska: Chile
Tagalog: Chile
தமிழ்: சிலி
Taqbaylit: Cili
tarandíne: Cile
татарча/tatarça: Чили
తెలుగు: చిలీ
tetun: Xile
ትግርኛ: ቺሌ
тоҷикӣ: Чили
lea faka-Tonga: Sile
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏥᎵ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Chile
Tshivenda: Shile
ತುಳು: ಚಿಲಿ
Türkçe: Şili
Türkmençe: Çili
Twi: Kyili
тыва дыл: Чили
удмурт: Чили
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Chili
українська: Чилі
اردو: چلی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: چىلى
Vahcuengh: Chile
vèneto: Ciłe
vepsän kel’: Čili
Tiếng Việt: Chile
Volapük: Cilän
Võro: Tsiili
walon: Tchili
文言: 智利
West-Vlams: Chili
Winaray: Chile
Wolof: Sili
吴语: 智利
Xitsonga: Chile
ייִדיש: טשילע
Yorùbá: Tsílè
粵語: 智利
Zazaki: Şili
Zeêuws: Chili
žemaitėška: Čilė
中文: 智利
डोटेली: चिली
Kabɩyɛ: Silii
Lingua Franca Nova: Txile