Child sexual abuse

Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.[1][2] Forms of child sexual abuse include engaging in sexual activities with a child (whether by asking or pressuring, or by other means), indecent exposure (of the genitals, female nipples, etc.), child grooming, or using a child to produce child pornography.[1][3][4]

Child sexual abuse can occur in a variety of settings, including home, school, or work (in places where child labor is common). Child marriage is one of the main forms of child sexual abuse; UNICEF has stated that child marriage "represents perhaps the most prevalent form of sexual abuse and exploitation of girls".[5] The effects of child sexual abuse can include depression,[6] post-traumatic stress disorder,[7] anxiety,[8] complex post-traumatic stress disorder,[9] propensity to further victimization in adulthood,[10] and physical injury to the child, among other problems.[11] Sexual abuse by a family member is a form of incest and can result in more serious and long-term psychological trauma, especially in the case of parental incest.[12]

The global prevalence of child sexual abuse has been estimated at 19.7% for females and 7.9% for males.[13] Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims; approximately 30% are relatives of the child, most often brothers, fathers, uncles, or cousins;[14] around 60% are other acquaintances, such as "friends" of the family, babysitters, or neighbors; strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases.[15] Most child sexual abuse is committed by men; studies on female child molesters show that women commit 14% to 40% of offenses reported against boys and 6% of offenses reported against girls.[15][16][17]

The word pedophile is commonly applied indiscriminately to anyone who sexually abuses a child,[18] but child sexual offenders are not pedophiles unless they have a strong sexual interest in prepubescent children.[19][20] Under the law, child sexual abuse is often used as an umbrella term describing criminal and civil offenses in which an adult engages in sexual activity with a minor or exploits a minor for the purpose of sexual gratification.[4][21] The American Psychological Association states that "children cannot consent to sexual activity with adults", and condemns any such action by an adult: "An adult who engages in sexual activity with a child is performing a criminal and immoral act which never can be considered normal or socially acceptable behavior."[22]

Effects

Psychological effects

Child sexual abuse can result in both short-term and long-term harm, including psychopathology in later life.[11][23] Indicators and effects include depression,[6][24][25] anxiety,[8] eating disorders,[26] poor self-esteem,[26] somatization,[25] sleep disturbances,[27][28] and dissociative and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder.[7][29] While children may exhibit regressive behaviours such as thumb sucking or bedwetting, the strongest indicator of sexual abuse is sexual acting out and inappropriate sexual knowledge and interest.[30][31] Victims may withdraw from school and social activities[30] and exhibit various learning and behavioural problems including cruelty to animals,[32][33][34][35] attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).[26] Teenage pregnancy and risky sexual behaviors may appear in adolescence.[36] Child sexual abuse victims report almost four times as many incidences of self-inflicted harm.[37]

A study funded by the USA National Institute of Drug Abuse found that "Among more than 1,400 adult females, childhood sexual abuse was associated with increased likelihood of drug dependence, alcohol dependence, and psychiatric disorders. The associations are expressed as odds ratios: for example, women who experienced nongenital sexual abuse in childhood were 2.83 times more likely to suffer drug dependence as adults than were women who were not abused."[38]

A well-documented, long-term negative effect is repeated or additional victimization in adolescence and adulthood.[10][39] A causal relationship has been found between childhood sexual abuse and various adult psychopathologies, including crime and suicide,[15][40][41][42][43][44] in addition to alcoholism and drug abuse.[38][39][45] Males who were sexually abused as children more frequently appear in the criminal justice system than in a clinical mental health setting.[30] A study comparing middle-aged women who were abused as children with non-abused counterparts found significantly higher health care costs for the former.[25][46] Intergenerational effects have been noted, with the children of victims of child sexual abuse exhibiting more conduct problems, peer problems, and emotional problems than their peers.[47]

A specific characteristic pattern of symptoms has not been identified,[48] and there are several hypotheses about the causality of these associations.[6][49][50]

Studies have found that 51% to 79% of sexually abused children exhibit psychological symptoms.[42][51][52][53][54] The risk of harm is greater if the abuser is a relative, if the abuse involves intercourse or attempted intercourse, or if threats or force are used.[55] The level of harm may also be affected by various factors such as penetration, duration and frequency of abuse, and use of force.[11][23][56][57] The social stigma of child sexual abuse may compound the psychological harm to children,[57][58] and adverse outcomes are less likely for abused children who have supportive family environments.[59][60]

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Child abuse, including sexual abuse, especially chronic abuse starting at early ages, has been found to be related to the development of high levels of dissociative symptoms, which includes amnesia for abuse memories.[61] When severe sexual abuse (penetration, several perpetrators, lasting more than one year) had occurred, dissociative symptoms were even more prominent.[62] Recent research showed that females with high exposure to child sexual abuse (CSA) suffer PTSD symptoms that are associated with poor social functioning, which is also supported by prior research studies.[63] The feeling of being “cut-off” from peers and “emotional numbness” are both results of CSA and highly inhibit proper social functioning. Furthermore, PTSD is associated with higher risk of substance abuse as a result of the “self-medication hypothesis” and the “high-risk and susceptibility hypothesis."[64] Prolonged exposure therapy (PE) was found to decrease PTSD and depressive symptoms in female methadone using CSA survivors.[64]

Besides dissociative identity disorder (DID), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD), child sexual abuse survivors may present borderline personality disorder (BPD) and eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa.[65]

Research factors

Because child sexual abuse often occurs alongside other possibly confounding variables, such as poor family environment and physical abuse,[66] some scholars argue it is important to control for those variables in studies which measure the effects of sexual abuse.[23][49][67][68] In a 1998 review of related literature, Martin and Fleming state "The hypothesis advanced in this paper is that, in most cases, the fundamental damage inflicted by child sexual abuse is due to the child's developing capacities for trust, intimacy, agency and sexuality, and that many of the mental health problems of adult life associated with histories of child sexual abuse are second-order effects."[69] Other studies have found an independent association of child sexual abuse with adverse psychological outcomes.[8][23][49]

Kendler et al. (2000) found that most of the relationship between severe forms of child sexual abuse and adult psychopathology in their sample could not be explained by family discord, because the effect size of this association decreased only slightly after they controlled for possible confounding variables. Their examination of a small sample of CSA-discordant twins also supported a causal link between child sexual abuse and adult psychopathology; the CSA-exposed subjects had a consistently higher risk for psychopathologic disorders than their CSA non-exposed twins.[49]

A 1998 meta-analysis by Bruce Rind et al. generated controversy by suggesting that child sexual abuse does not always cause pervasive harm, that some college students reported such encounters as positive experiences and that the extent of psychological damage depends on whether or not the child described the encounter as "consensual."[70] The study was criticized for flawed methodology and conclusions.[71][72] The US Congress condemned the study for its conclusions and for providing material used by pedophile organizations to justify their activities.[73]

Physical effects

Injury

Depending on the age and size of the child, and the degree of force used, child sexual abuse may cause internal lacerations and bleeding. In severe cases, damage to internal organs may occur, which, in some cases, may cause death.[74]

Infections

Child sexual abuse may cause infections and sexually transmitted diseases.[75] Due to a lack of sufficient vaginal fluid, chances of infections can heighten depending on the age and size of the child. Vaginitis has also been reported.[75]

Neurological damage

Research has shown that traumatic stress, including stress caused by sexual abuse, causes notable changes in brain functioning and development.[76][77] Various studies have suggested that severe child sexual abuse may have a deleterious effect on brain development. Ito et al. (1998) found "reversed hemispheric asymmetry and greater left hemisphere coherence in abused subjects;"[78] Teicher et al. (1993) found that an increased likelihood of "ictal temporal lobe epilepsy-like symptoms" in abused subjects;[79] Anderson et al. (2002) recorded abnormal transverse relaxation time in the cerebellar vermis of adults sexually abused in childhood;[80] Teicher et al. (1993) found that child sexual abuse was associated with a reduced corpus callosum area; various studies have found an association of reduced volume of the left hippocampus with child sexual abuse;[81] and Ito et al. (1993) found increased electrophysiological abnormalities in sexually abused children.[82]

Some studies indicate that sexual or physical abuse in children can lead to the overexcitation of an undeveloped limbic system.[81] Teicher et al. (1993)[79] used the "Limbic System Checklist-33" to measure ictal temporal lobe epilepsy-like symptoms in 253 adults. Reports of child sexual abuse were associated with a 49% increase to LSCL-33 scores, 11% higher than the associated increase of self-reported physical abuse. Reports of both physical and sexual abuse were associated with a 113% increase. Male and female victims were similarly affected.[79][83]

Navalta et al. (2006) found that the self-reported math Scholastic Aptitude Test scores of their sample of women with a history of repeated child sexual abuse were significantly lower than the self-reported math SAT scores of their non-abused sample. Because the abused subjects' verbal SAT scores were high, they hypothesized that the low math SAT scores could "stem from a defect in hemispheric integration." They also found a strong association between short-term memory impairments for all categories tested (verbal, visual, and global) and the duration of the abuse.[84]

Other Languages
한국어: 아동 성학대
Simple English: Child sexual abuse