Child pornography

Child pornography is pornography that exploits children for sexual stimulation. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] It may be produced with the direct involvement or sexual assault of a child (also known as child sexual abuse images [7] [8] [9]) or it may be simulated child pornography. Abuse of the child occurs during the sexual acts or lascivious exhibitions of genitals or pubic areas which are recorded in the production of child pornography. [1] [2] [4] [5] [6] [10] [11] Child pornography may use a variety of media, [12] including writings, [7] [13] [14] magazines, photos, [12] sculpture, [12] drawing, [12] cartoon, [12] painting, [12] animation, sound recording, [15] film, video, [12] and video games. [16]

Laws regarding child pornography generally include sexual images involving prepubescents, pubescent or post-pubescent minors and computer-generated images that appear to involve them. [17] Most possessors of child pornography who are arrested are found to possess images of prepubescent children; possessors of pornographic images of post-pubescent minors are less likely to be prosecuted, even though those images also fall within the statutes. [17]

Producers of child pornography try to avoid prosecution by distributing their material across national borders, though this issue is increasingly being addressed with regular arrests of suspects from a number of countries occurring over the last few years. [17] [18] The prepubescent pornography is viewed and collected by pedophiles for a variety of purposes, ranging from private sexual uses, trading with other pedophiles, preparing children for sexual abuse as part of the process known as " child grooming", or enticement leading to entrapment for sexual exploitation such as production of new child pornography or child prostitution. [19] [20] [21] Children themselves also sometimes produce child pornography on their own initiative or by the coercion of an adult. [22]

Child pornography is illegal and censored in most jurisdictions in the world. [23] [24] Ninety-four of 187 Interpol member states had laws specifically addressing child pornography as of 2008, though this does not include nations that ban all pornography. [25] Of those 94 countries, 58 criminalized possession of child pornography regardless of intent to distribute. [25] Both distribution and possession are now criminal offenses in almost all Western countries. A wide movement is working to globalize the criminalization of child pornography, including major international organizations such as the United Nations and the European Commission. [7] [26]

Terminology

Warning Banner for Operation Protect Our Children

In the 2000s, use of the term child abuse images increased by both scholars and law enforcement personnel because the term "pornography" can carry the inaccurate implication of consent and create distance from the abusive nature of the material. [7] [8] [9] [27] [28] A similar term, child sexual abuse material, is used by some official bodies, [29] [30] [31] and similar terms such as "child abuse material", "documented child sexual abuse", and "depicted child sexual abuse" are also used, as are the acronyms CAM and CAI. [27] The term "child pornography" retains its legal definitions in various jurisdictions, along with related terms such as "indecent photographs of a child" and others. [7] [8] [9] [32] In 2008, the World Congress III against the Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents stated in their formally adopted pact that "Increasingly the term 'child abuse images' is being used to refer to the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents in pornography. This is to reflect the seriousness of the phenomenon and to emphasize that pornographic images of children are in fact records of a crime being committed." [33]

Interpol and policing institutions of various governments, including among others the United States Department of Justice, enforce child pornography laws internationally. [17] Since 1999, the Interpol Standing Working Group on Offenses Against Minors has used the following definition:

Child pornography is the consequence of the exploitation or sexual abuse perpetrated against a child. It can be defined as any means of depicting or promoting sexual abuse of a child, including print and/or audio, centered on sex acts or the genital organs of children. [11]

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