Child

Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.[1][2] The legal definition of child generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority.[1]

Child may also describe a relationship with a parent (such as sons and daughters of any age)[3] or, metaphorically, an authority figure, or signify group membership in a clan, tribe, or religion; it can also signify being strongly affected by a specific time, place, or circumstance, as in "a child of nature" or "a child of the Sixties".[4]

There are many social issues that affect children, such as childhood education, bullying, child poverty, dysfunctional families, child labor, hunger, and child homelessness. Children can be raised by parents, by fosterers, guardians or partially raised in a day care center.

Legal, biological, social definitions

Children playing ball games, Roman artwork, 2nd century AD

Legally, the term "child" may refer to anyone below the age of majority or some other age limit. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child defines child as "a human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier".[5] This is ratified by 192 of 194 member countries. The term "child" may also refer to someone below another legally defined age limit unconnected to the age of majority. In Singapore, for example, a "child" is legally defined as someone under the age of 14 under the "Children and Young Persons Act" whereas the age of majority is 21.[6][7] In U.S. Immigration Law, a child refers to anyone who is under the age of 21.[8]

Biologically, a child is generally anyone between birth and puberty.[1][2] Some English definitions of the word child include the fetus (sometimes termed the unborn).[9] In many cultures, a child is considered an adult after undergoing a rite of passage, which may or may not correspond to the time of puberty.

Children generally have fewer rights than adults and are classed as unable to make serious decisions, and legally must always be under the care of a responsible adult or child custody, whether their parents divorce or not. Recognition of childhood as a state different from adulthood began to emerge in the 16th and 17th centuries. Society began to relate to the child not as a miniature adult but as a person of a lower level of maturity needing adult protection, love and nurturing. This change can be traced in paintings: In the Middle Ages, children were portrayed in art as miniature adults with no childlike characteristics. In the 16th century, images of children began to acquire a distinct childlike appearance. From the late 17th century onwards, children were shown playing with toys and later literature for children also began to develop at this time.[10]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Kind
Alemannisch: Kind
العربية: طفل
aragonés: Nino
armãneashti: Cochilu
asturianu: Neñu
Avañe'ẽ: Mitã
azərbaycanca: Uşaq
تۆرکجه: اوشاق
বাংলা: শিশু
Bân-lâm-gú: Gín-á
башҡортса: Бала
беларуская: Дзіця
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Дзіця
български: Дете
Boarisch: Kindl
བོད་ཡིག: ཕྲུ་གུ
bosanski: Dijete
brezhoneg: Bugel
буряад: Үхибүүн
català: Nen
Чӑвашла: Ача
čeština: Dítě
chiShona: Vana
Cymraeg: Plentyn
dansk: Barn
Deutsch: Kind
dolnoserbski: Źiśe
eesti: Laps
Ελληνικά: Παιδί
español: Niño
Esperanto: Infano
euskara: Haur
فارسی: کودک
Fiji Hindi: Larrkan
français: Enfant
Gaeilge: Leanbh
Gàidhlig: Pàiste
galego: Neno
贛語: 細伢子
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Se-ngìn-é
한국어: 어린이
հայերեն: Երեխա
hornjoserbsce: Dźěćo
hrvatski: Djeca
Ido: Puero
Ilokano: Anak
Bahasa Indonesia: Anak
íslenska: Barn
italiano: Bambino
עברית: ילדות
Basa Jawa: Bocah
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮಗು
къарачай-малкъар: Сабий
ქართული: ბავშვი
қазақша: Бала
Kinyarwanda: Umwana
Kiswahili: Mtoto
Kreyòl ayisyen: Timoun
kurdî: Zarok
Кыргызча: Бала
Latina: Impubes
latviešu: Bērns
lietuvių: Vaikas
Limburgs: Kindj
lingála: Mwǎna
lumbaart: Bagai
magyar: Gyermek
मैथिली: बच्चा
македонски: Дете
Malagasy: Ankizy
മലയാളം: കുട്ടി
Malti: Tifel
მარგალური: ბაღანა
مصرى: طفل
Bahasa Melayu: Kanak-kanak
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Niè-giāng
монгол: Хүүхэд
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကလေး
Nāhuatl: Conetl
Nedersaksies: Kiend
नेपाल भाषा: मचा
日本語: 子供
нохчийн: Бер
norsk: Barn
norsk nynorsk: Barn
Nouormand: Éfaunt
occitan: Enfant
олык марий: Йоча
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Bola
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬੱਚਾ
پنجابی: جواک
Patois: Pitni
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ក្មេង
Piemontèis: Masnà
polski: Dziecko
português: Criança
Ripoarisch: Panz
română: Copil
Romani: Chave
Runa Simi: Wawa
русиньскый: Дїтина
русский: Ребёнок
саха тыла: Оҕо
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟ.
Scots: Bairn
Setswana: Ngwana
shqip: Fëmija
sicilianu: Picciriddu
සිංහල: ළමයි
Simple English: Child
سنڌي: ٻار
slovenčina: Dieťa
slovenščina: Otrok
کوردی: مناڵ
српски / srpski: Дете
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Dijete
suomi: Lapsi
svenska: Barn
Tagalog: Bata
தமிழ்: பிள்ளை
татарча/tatarça: Бала
తెలుగు: పిల్లలు
ไทย: เด็ก
тоҷикӣ: Кӯдак
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎠᏲᎵ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Ka'êškone
Türkçe: Çocuk
українська: Дитина
اردو: طفل
vepsän kel’: Laps'
Tiếng Việt: Trẻ em
Võro: Lats
walon: Efant
Winaray: Bata
吴语: 小人
Xitsonga: N'wana
ייִדיש: קינד
Yorùbá: Ọmọ
粵語: 細路
Zazaki: Qıc
Zeêuws: Guus
žemaitėška: Vāks
中文: 儿童
Bahasa Hulontalo: Wala'o
Lingua Franca Nova: Enfante