Charadriiformes

Charadriiformes
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous-Present, 75–0 Ma
חופמאים-01.jpg
Several members of the order
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Clade:Passerea
Clade:Gruae
Clade:Gruimorphae
Order:Charadriiformes
Huxley, 1867
Families

See text.

Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. It includes about 350 species and has members in all parts of the world. Most Charadriiformes live near water and eat invertebrates or other small animals; however, some are pelagic (seabirds), some occupy deserts and a few are found in thick forest.

Taxonomy, systematics and evolution

The order was formerly divided into three suborders:

  • The waders (or "Charadrii"): typical shorebirds, most of which feed by probing in the mud or picking items off the surface in both coastal and freshwater environments.
  • The gulls and their allies (or "Lari"): these are generally larger species which take fish from the sea. Several gulls and skuas will also take food items from beaches, or rob smaller species, and some have become adapted to inland environments.
  • The auks (or "Alcae") are coastal species which nest on sea cliffs and "fly" underwater to catch fish.

The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, which has been widely accepted in America,[citation needed] lumps all the Charadriiformes together with other seabirds and birds of prey into a greatly enlarged order Ciconiiformes. However, the resolution of the DNA-DNA hybridization technique used by Sibley & Ahlquist was not sufficient to properly resolve the relationships in this group, and indeed it appears as if the Charadriiformes constitute a single large and very distinctive lineage of modern birds of their own.[1]

The auks, usually considered distinct because of their peculiar morphology, are more likely related to gulls, the "distinctness" being a result of adaptation for diving. Following recent research,[2] a better arrangement may be as follows:

Families in taxonomic order

This is a list of the charadriiform families, presented in taxonomic order.

More conservatively, the Thinocori could be included in the Scolopaci (this combined sub-order is called Limicoli), and the Chionidi in the Charadrii. The suborders Thincori, Scolopaci, Chionidi, and Charadri are commonly referred to collectively as waders. Some taxonomy sources place the family Glareolidae in its own suborder, instead of being classified under suborder Lari.[3] The buttonquails are of indeterminate or basal position in the Lari-Scolopaci sensu lato group. The arrangement as presented here is a consensus of the recent studies.[4]

Charadriiformes
Charadrii
Chionida
Burhinidae

Burhinus



Esacus




Chionidae

Chionis


Pluvianellidae

Pluvianellus




Charadriida
Pluvianidae

Pluvianus




Pluvialidae

Pluvialis




Ibidorhynchidae

Ibidorhyncha


Haematopodidae

Haematopus



Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostra




Cladorhynchus



Himantopus






Charadriidae
Charadriinae

Oreopholus





Phegornis



Zonibyx





Eudromias




Afroxyechus




Charadrius



Thinornis








Vanellinae

Vanellus


Anarhynchinae

Erythrogonys




Peltohyas




Eupoda




Anarhynchus



Ochthodromus












Limicoli
Jacanida
Thincoroidea
Pedionomidae

Pedionomus


Thinocoridae

Attagis



Thinocorus




Jacanoidea
Rostratulidae

Nycticryphes



Rostratula



Jacanidae


Hydrophasianus



Jacana





Actophilornis




Metopidius




Microparra



Irediparra








Scolopacida
Scolopacidae
Numeniinae

Bartramia



Numenius




Limosinae

Limosa



Arenariinae

Limicola



Ereunetes



Calidris




Arenaria



Prosobonia





Tringinae


Xenus



Phalaropus





Actitis



Tringa




Scolopacinae


Lymnocryptes



Limnodromus





Scolopax




Gallinago




Chubbia



Coenocorypha












Lari
Turnicida

Ortyxelos



Turnix



Larida
Glareoloidea
Dromadidae

Dromas ardeola


Glareolidae

Stiltia



Rhinoptilus




Cursorius



Glareola






Alcoidea
Stercorariidae

Stercorarius


Alcidae
Fraterculinae


Cerorhinca



Fratercula





Ptychoramphus



Aethia




Alcinae

Brachyramphus




Cepphus




Synthliboramphus





Uria



Alle





Alca



Pinguinus









Laroidea
Laridae
Gyginae

Gygis


Rynchopinae

Rynchops


Anoinae

Anous



Procelsterna



Sterninae

Onychoprion




Sternula




Phaetusa





Gelochelidon



Hydroprogne





Larosterna




Chlidonias




Thalasseus



Sterna









Larinae

Creagrus




Hydrocoloeus



Rhodostethia





Rissa




Pagophila



Xema






Saundersilarus




Chroicocephalus




Leucophaeus




Larus



Ichthyaetus














Cladogram based on Baker, A.J. et al. (2012)[5] and Boyd, J. H. et al. (2016) [3]

Evolution history

That the Charadriiformes are an ancient group is also borne out by the fossil record. Much of the Neornithes' fossil record around the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event is made up of bits and pieces of birds which resemble this order. In many, this is probably due to convergent evolution brought about by semiaquatic habits. Specimen VI 9901 (López de Bertodano Formation, Late Cretaceous of Vega Island, Antarctica) is probably a basal charadriiform somewhat reminiscent of a thick-knee.[6] However, more complete remains of undisputed charadriiforms are known only from the mid-Paleogene onwards. Present-day orders emerged around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, roughly 35-30 mya. Basal or unresolved charadriiforms are:

  • " Morsoravis" (Late Paleocene/Early Eocene of Jutland, Denmark) - a nomen nudum?
  • Jiliniornis (Huadian Middle Eocene of Huadian, China) - charadriid?
  • Boutersemia (Early Oligocene of Boutersem, Belgium) - glareolid?
  • Turnipax (Early Oligocene) - turnicid?
  • Elorius (Early Miocene Saint-Gérand-le-Puy, France)
  • "Larus" desnoyersii (Early Miocene of SE France) - larid? stercorarid?
  • "Larus" pristinus (John Day Early Miocene of Willow Creek, USA) - larid?
  • Charadriiformes gen. et sp. indet. (Bathans Early/Middle Miocene of Otago, New Zealand) - charadriid? scolopacid?[7]
  • Charadriiformes gen. et sp. indet. (Bathans Early/Middle Miocene of Otago, New Zealand) - charadriid? scolopacid?[8]
  • Charadriiformes gen. et sp. indet. (Bathans Early/Middle Miocene of Otago, New Zealand) - larid?[9]
  • Charadriiformes gen. et sp. indet. (Sajóvölgyi Middle Miocene of Mátraszõlõs, Hungary[10]
  • "Totanus" teruelensis (Late Miocene of Los Mansuetos, Spain) - scolopacid? larid?

The "transitional shorebirds" (" Graculavidae") are a generally Mesozoic form taxon formerly believed to constitute the common ancestors of charadriiforms, waterfowl and flamingos. They are now assumed to be mostly basal taxa of the charadriiforms and/or "higher waterbirds", which probably were two distinct lineages 65 mya already,[citation needed] and few if any are still believed to be related to the well-distinct waterfowl. Taxa formerly considered graculavids are:

  • Laornithidae - charadriiform? gruiform?
  • " Graculavidae"
    • Graculavus (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous - Hornerstown Late Cretaceous/Early Palaeocene) - charadriiform?
    • Palaeotringa (Hornerstown Late Cretaceous?) - charadriiform?
    • Telmatornis (Navesink Late Cretaceous?) - charadriiform? gruiform?
    • Scaniornis - phoenicopteriform?
    • Zhylgaia - presbyornithid?
    • Dakotornis
    • "Graculavidae" gen. et sp. indet. (Gloucester County, USA)

Other wader- or gull-like birds incertae sedis, which may or may not be Charadriiformes, are:

  • Ceramornis (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous)
  • "Cimolopteryx" (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous)
  • Palintropus (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous)
  • Torotix (Late Cretaceous)
  • Volgavis (Early Paleocene of Volgograd, Russia)
  • Eupterornis (Paleocene of France)
  • Neornithes incerta sedis (Late Paleocene/Early Eocene of Ouled Abdoun Basin, Morocco)[11]
  • Fluviatitavis (Early Eocene of Silveirinha, Portugal)
Other Languages
العربية: إفجيجيات
asturianu: Charadriiformes
azərbaycanca: Çovdarçıkimilər
башҡортса: Сәпсәү һымаҡтар
беларуская: Сеўцападобныя
brezhoneg: Charadriiformes
català: Caradriformes
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hrvatski: Močvarice
Bahasa Indonesia: Charadriiformes
íslenska: Strandfuglar
italiano: Charadriiformes
עברית: חופמאים
Limburgs: Pleveerechtege
magyar: Lilealakúak
македонски: Дождосвирни
მარგალური: მექუბიშობურეფი
Bahasa Melayu: Charadriiformes
Nederlands: Steltloperachtigen
日本語: チドリ目
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Balchiqchilar
Plattdüütsch: Tüütvagels
polski: Siewkowe
português: Charadriiformes
română: Caradriiforme
русиньскый: Ржанкоподобны
sicilianu: Charadriiformes
Simple English: Charadriiformes
slovenčina: Kulíkotvaré
slovenščina: Pobrežniki
српски / srpski: Šljukarice
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Močvarice
svenska: Vadarfåglar
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Tiếng Việt: Bộ Choi choi
West-Vlams: Steltloperachtign
粵語: 鴴形目
中文: 鸻形目