Chang'e 4

Chang'e 4
Chang'e 4.png
Mission typeLander, lunar rover
OperatorCNSA
Mission durationLander: 12 months
Rover: 3 months[1]
Spacecraft properties
Launch massLander: 1,200 kg[2]
Rover: 140 kg[2]
Landing massTotal: ~1,200 kg; rover: 140 kg
DimensionsRover: 1.5 × 1.0 × 1.0 m[3]
Start of mission
Launch dateQueqiao relay satellite: 20 May 2018
Lander and rover: 7 December 2018, 18:23 UTC[4]
RocketLong March 3B[5][6]
Launch siteXichang Satellite Launch Center
Moon rover
Landing dateLander and rover: 3 January 2019, 2:26 UTC[7]
Landing siteVon Kármán crater[8] in the South Pole-Aitken Basin[9]

Chang'e 4 (ə/; Chinese: 嫦娥四号; pinyin: Cháng'é Sìhào; literally: "Chang'e No. 4") is a Chinese lunar exploration mission that achieved the first soft landing on the far side of the Moon, on 3 January 2019.[10][11] A communication relay satellite, Queqiao, was first launched to a halo orbit near the Earth-Moon L2 point in May 2018. The robotic lander and Yutu 2 ("Jade Rabbit No. 2") rover[12] were launched on 7 December 2018 and entered orbit around the Moon on 12 December 2018.

The mission is the follow-up to Chang'e 3, the first Chinese landing on the Moon. The spacecraft was originally built as a backup for Chang'e 3 and became available after Chang'e 3 landed successfully in 2013. The configuration of Chang'e 4 was adjusted to meet new scientific objectives. Like its predecessors, the mission is named after Chang'e, the Chinese Moon goddess.

The far side of the Moon is sometimes called the "dark side" of the Moon, as most of it is not visible from Earth due to tidal locking

Overview

The Chinese Lunar Exploration Program is designed to be conducted in three phases of incremental technological advancement: the first is to reach lunar orbit, a task completed by Chang'e 1 in 2007 and Chang'e 2 in 2010; the second is to land and rove on the Moon, as Chang'e 3 did in 2013 and Chang'e 4 did in January 2019; the third is to collect lunar samples from the near-side and send them to Earth, a task for the future Chang'e 5 and Chang'e 6 missions. The program aims to facilitate a crewed lunar landing in the 2030s and possibly build an outpost near the south pole.[13][14][15] The Chinese Lunar Exploration Program has started to incorporate private investment from individuals and enterprises for the first time, a move aimed at accelerating aerospace innovation, cutting production costs, and promoting military–civilian relationships.[16]

The Chang'e 4 mission was first scheduled for launch in 2015 as part of the second phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program.[17][18] But the adjusted objectives and design of the mission imposed delays, and finally launched on 7 December 2018, 18:23 UTC.[4][19] The spacecraft entered lunar orbit on 12 December 2018, 08:45 UTC.[20] The orbit's perilune was lowered to 15 km (9.3 mi) on 30 December 2018, 00:55 UTC.[21] Landing took place on 3 January 2019 at 02:26 UTC,[11] shortly after lunar sunrise over the Von Kármán crater.[22]

This mission will attempt to determine the age and composition of an unexplored region of the Moon, as well as develop technologies required for the later stages of the program.[23]

According to Wu Weiren, the chief engineer of the program, the United States once requested China to provide the orbital data of Chang'e 4 to monitor its lunar landing, but it was declined by China.[24]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Chang'e 4
العربية: تشانج آه 4
aragonés: Chang'e 4
беларуская: Чан’э-4
català: Chang'e 4
čeština: Čchang-e 4
Deutsch: Chang’e-4
español: Chang'e 4
euskara: Chang'e 4
فارسی: چانگ ای ۴
français: Chang'e 4
한국어: 창어 4호
հայերեն: Չանյե-4
हिन्दी: चांग ई-4
Bahasa Indonesia: Chang'e 4
italiano: Chang'e 4
עברית: צ'אנג-אה 4
latviešu: Chang'e 4
Lëtzebuergesch: Chang'e-4
Nederlands: Chang'e 4
日本語: 嫦娥4号
polski: Chang’e 4
português: Chang'e 4
русский: Чанъэ-4
slovenčina: Čchang-e 4
svenska: Chang'e 4
Türkçe: Chang'e 4
українська: Чан'е-4
Tiếng Việt: Thường Nga 4
粵語: 嫦娥四號
中文: 嫦娥四号