Chandrayaan-2 lander and orbiter integrated module.jpg
Chandrayaan-2 composite
Mission typeLunar orbiter, lander, rover
OperatorIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
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Mission duration
  • Orbiter: ~ 7 years
    Elapsed: 5 months, 13 days
  • Vikram lander: ≤ 14 days (planned)[1][2];
    Achieved: 0 days (landing failure)
  • Pragyan rover: ≤ 14 days (planned)[2];
    Achieved: 0 days (landing failure)
Spacecraft properties
ManufacturerIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
Launch massCombined (wet): 3,850 kg (8,490 lb)[3][4][5]
Combined (dry): 1,308 kg (2,884 lb)[6]
Orbiter (wet): 2,379 kg (5,245 lb)[4][5]
Orbiter (dry): 682 kg (1,504 lb)[6]
Vikram lander (wet): 1,471 kg (3,243 lb)[4][5]
Vikram lander (dry): 626 kg (1,380 lb)[6]
Pragyan rover: 27 kg (60 lb)[4][5]
PowerOrbiter: 1 kW (1.3 hp)[7]

Vikram lander: 650 W

Pragyan rover: 50 W
Start of mission
Launch date22 July 2019, 14:43:12 IST (09:13:12 UTC)[8]
RocketGSLV Mark III M1[9][10]
Launch siteSatish Dhawan Space Centre Second Launch Pad
ContractorIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
Moon orbiter
Orbital insertion20 August 2019, 09:02 IST (03:32 UTC) [11][12]
Orbital parameters
Pericynthion altitude100 km (62 mi)[13]
Apocynthion altitude100 km (62 mi)[13]
Inclination90° (polar orbit)
Moon lander
Spacecraft componentRover
Landing date7 September 2019, 01:53 IST (failure)
(6 September 2019, 20:23 UTC) [14][12]
Landing siteLunar south pole (intended)

Chandrayaan-2 (candra-yāna, transl. "mooncraft";[15][16] About this soundpronunciation ) is the second lunar exploration mission developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO),[17][18] after Chandrayaan-1.[19][20] It currently consists of a lunar orbiter, and also included the Vikram lander, and the Pragyan lunar rover, all of which were developed in India.[21] The main scientific objective is to map and study the variations in lunar surface composition, as well as the location and abundance of lunar water.[22][23]

The spacecraft was launched on its mission to the Moon from the second launch pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre on 22 July 2019 at 2.43 PM IST (09:13 UTC) by a GSLV Mark III.[9][10][24] The craft reached the Moon's orbit on 20 August 2019 and began orbital positioning manoeuvres for the landing of the Vikram lander.[25] Vikram and the rover were scheduled to land on the near side of the Moon, in the south polar region[26] at a latitude of about 70° south on 6 September 2019 and conduct scientific experiments for one lunar day, which approximates two Earth weeks. A successful soft landing would have made India fourth country after USSR, US and PRC to do so.

However, the lander deviated from its intended trajectory starting at 2.1 kilometres (1.3 mi) altitude,[27] and had lost communication when touchdown confirmation was expected.[28][29] Initial reports suggesting a crash[30][31] were confirmed by ISRO chairman K. Sivan, stating that "it must have been a hard landing".[32] The Failure Analysis Committee concluded that the crash was caused by a software glitch.[33] Unlike ISRO's previous record, the report of the Failure Analysis Committee has not been made public.[34]

ISRO may re-attempt a soft landing by Q2 2021 with Chandrayaan-3.[35] The proposed configuration would include a detachable propulsion module, a lander and a rover.[36][37][38][39]


On 12 November 2007, representatives of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and ISRO signed an agreement for the two agencies to work together on the Chandrayaan-2 project.[40] ISRO would have the prime responsibility for the orbiter and rover, while Roscosmos was to provide the lander. The Indian government approved the mission in a meeting of the Union Cabinet, held on 18 September 2008 and chaired by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.[41] The design of the spacecraft was completed in August 2009, with scientists of both countries conducting a joint review.[42][43]

Although ISRO finalised the payload for Chandrayaan-2 per schedule,[44] the mission was postponed in January 2013[45] and rescheduled to 2016 because Russia was unable to develop the lander on time.[46][47] Roscosmos later withdrew in wake of the failure of the Fobos-Grunt mission to Mars, since the technical aspects connected with the Fobos-Grunt mission were also used in the lunar projects, which needed to be reviewed.[46] When Russia cited its inability to provide the lander even by 2015, India decided to develop the lunar mission independently.[45][48]

The spacecraft's launch had been scheduled for March 2018, but was first delayed to April and then to October to conduct further tests on the vehicle.[49][50] On 19 June 2018, after the program's fourth Comprehensive Technical Review meeting, a number of changes in configuration and landing sequence were planned for implementation, pushing the launch to the first half of 2019.[51] Two of the lander's legs got minor damage during one of the tests in February 2019.[52]

Chandrayaan-2 launch was initially scheduled for 14 July 2019, 21:21 UTC (15 July 2019 at 02:51 IST local time), with the landing expected on 6 September 2019.[20] However, the launch was aborted due to a technical glitch and was rescheduled.[53][8][54] The launch occurred on 22 July 2019 at 09:13 UTC (14:43 IST) on the first operational flight of a GSLV MK III M1.[55]

Other Languages
অসমীয়া: চন্দ্ৰযান-২
беларуская: Чандраян-2
भोजपुरी: चंद्रयान-2
català: Chandrayaan-2
čeština: Čandraján-2
Deutsch: Chandrayaan-2
Ελληνικά: Τσαντραγιάν-2
español: Chandrayaan-2
français: Chandrayaan-2
ગુજરાતી: ચંદ્રયાન-૨
हिन्दी: चंद्रयान-२
Bahasa Indonesia: Chandrayaan-2
italiano: Chandrayaan-2
latviešu: Chandrayaan 2
മലയാളം: ചന്ദ്രയാൻ-2
Nederlands: Chandrayaan-2
پنجابی: چندریان-2
português: Chandrayaan-2
русский: Чандраян-2
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱪᱚᱱᱫᱽᱨᱚᱭᱟᱱ-᱒
Simple English: Chandrayaan-2
slovenčina: Čandraján-2
svenska: Chandrayaan-2
తెలుగు: చంద్రయాన్-2
Türkçe: Chandrayaan-2
українська: Чандраян-2
Tiếng Việt: Chandrayaan-2
吴语: 月船二号
中文: 月船二号