|A child with cerebral palsy|
|Usual onset||Early childhood |
|Causes||Often unknown |
||Based on child's development |
|Frequency||2.1 per 1,000 |
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent
Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance and posture.
 Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth.
 Often the cause is unknown.
 Risk factors include
CP is partly preventable through immunization of the mother and efforts to prevent head injuries in children such as through improved safety.
 There is no cure for CP; however, supportive treatments, medications, and surgery may help many individuals.
 This may include
CP is the most common movement disorder in children.
 It occurs in about 2.1 per 1,000 live births.
 Cerebral palsy has been documented throughout history with the first known descriptions occurring in the work of
Cerebral palsy is defined as "a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain."  While the central feature of CP is a disorder with movement, difficulties with thinking, learning, feeling, communication and behavior often occur along with cerebral palsy.  Of those with CP, 28% have epilepsy, 58% have difficulties with communication, at least 42% have problems with their vision, and 23–56% have learning disabilities. 
Cerebral palsy is characterized by abnormal
Most people with CP have problems with high muscle tone, although some have normal or low muscle tone. High muscle tone can either be due to spasticity or dystonia. 
Babies born with severe CP often have an irregular posture; their bodies may be either very floppy or very stiff. Birth defects, such as spinal curvature, a small jawbone, or a small head sometimes occur along with CP. Symptoms may appear or change as a child gets older. Some babies born with CP do not show obvious signs right away.  Classically, CP becomes evident when the baby reaches the developmental stage at 6 to 9 months and is starting to mobilise, where preferential use of limbs, asymmetry, or gross motor developmental delay is seen. 
Drooling is common among children with cerebral palsy, which can have a variety of impacts including social rejection, impaired speaking, damage to clothing and books, and mouth infections. 
An average of 55.5% of people with cerebral palsy experience
Speech and language disorders are common in people with cerebral palsy. The incidence of
Early use of augmentative and alternative communication systems may assist the child in developing spoken language skills.
In order for bones to attain their normal shape and size, they require the stresses from normal musculature. Osseous findings will, therefore, mirror the specific muscular deficits in a given person with CP. The shafts of the bones are often thin (gracile) and become thinner during growth. When compared to these thin shafts (
Children may develop
Pain is common and may result from the inherent deficits associated with the condition, along with the numerous procedures children typically face.
 Pain is associated with tight or shortened muscles, abnormal posture, stiff joints, unsuitable orthosis, etc. There is also a high likelihood of chronic
Those with CP may have difficulty preparing food, holding utensils, or chewing and swallowing due to sensory and motor impairments. An infant with CP may not be able to suck, swallow or chew.
 Children with CP may have too little or too much sensitivity around and in the mouth.
 Poor balance when sitting, lack of control of the head, mouth and trunk, not being able to bend the hips enough to allow the arms to stretch forward to reach and grasp food or utensils, and lack of
Children with severe cerebral palsy, particularly with
Associated disorders include "intellectual disabilities, seizures, muscle contractures, abnormal gait,
Seizure management is more difficult in people with CP as seizures often last longer.