Middle Ages and early modern era
Elements of unity for Western and Central Europe were
Roman Catholicism and Latin. Eastern Europe, which remained
Eastern Orthodox Christian, was the area of Byzantine cultural influence; after the schism (1054), it developed cultural unity and resistance to the Western world (Catholic and Protestant) within the framework of Slavonic language and the Cyrillic alphabet.
According to Hungarian historian
Jenő Szűcs, foundations of Central European history at the first millennium were in close connection with Western European development. He explained that between the 11th and 15th centuries not only Christianization and its cultural consequences were implemented, but well-defined social features emerged in Central Europe based on Western characteristics. The keyword of Western social development after millennium was the spread of liberties and autonomies in Western Europe. These phenomena appeared in the middle of the 13th century in Central European countries. There were self-governments of towns, counties and parliaments.
In 1335 under the rule of the King
Charles I of Hungary, the castle of
Visegrád, the seat of the
Hungarian monarchs was the scene of the royal summit of the
Kings of Poland,
Bohemia and Hungary.
 They agreed to cooperate closely in the field of politics and commerce, inspiring their late successors to launch a successful
Central European initiative.
In the Middle Ages, countries in Central Europe adopted
Before World War I
A view of Central Europe dating from the time before the
First World War
Regions located at the transition between Central Europe and Southeastern/Eastern Europe:
Before 1870, the industrialization that had developed in Western and Central Europe and the United States did not extend in any significant way to the rest of the world. Even in
Eastern Europe, industrialization lagged far behind.
Russia, for example, remained largely rural and agricultural, and its autocratic rulers kept the peasants in serfdom.
 The concept of Central Europe was already known at the beginning of the 19th century,
 but its real life began in the 20th century and immediately became an object of intensive interest. However, the very first concept mixed science, politics and economy – it was strictly connected with intensively growing German economy and its aspirations to dominate a part of European continent called Mitteleuropa. The German term denoting Central Europe was so fashionable that other languages started referring to it when indicating territories from
Vistula, or even
Dnieper, and from the
Baltic Sea to the
 An example of that-time vision of Central Europe may be seen in J. Partsch’s book of 1903.
On 21 January 1904, Mitteleuropäischer Wirtschaftsverein (Central European Economic Association) was established in
Berlin with economic integration of Germany and Austria–Hungary (with eventual extension to
Belgium and the
Netherlands) as its main aim. Another time, the term Central Europe became connected to the German plans of political, economic and cultural domination. The "bible" of the concept was
Friedrich Naumann’s book Mitteleuropa
 in which he called for an economic federation to be established after the war. Naumann's idea was that the federation would have at its center Germany and the
Austro-Hungarian Empire but would also include all European nations outside the Anglo-French alliance, on one side, and Russia, on the other.
 The concept failed after the German defeat in
World War I and the
dissolution of Austria–Hungary. The revival of the idea may be observed during the
Central Europe according to Emmanuel de Martonne (1927)
CE countries, Sourcebook of Central European Avant-Gardes 1910–1930
(L.A. County Museum of Art)
Emmanuel de Martonne, in 1927 the Central European countries included: Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Switzerland. Italy and Yugoslavia are not considered by the author to be Central European because they are located mostly outside Central Europe. The author use both Human and Physical Geographical features to define Central Europe.
interwar period (1918–1939) brought new geopolitical system and economic and political problems, and the concept of Central Europe took a different character. The centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have (re)appeared on the map of Europe:
Poland. Central Europe ceased to be the area of German aspiration to lead or dominate and became a territory of various integration movements aiming at resolving political, economic and national problems of "new" states, being a way to face German and Soviet pressures. However, the conflict of interests was too big and neither
Little Entente nor
Intermarium (Międzymorze) ideas succeeded.
The interwar period brought new elements to the concept of Central Europe. Before World War I, it embraced mainly German states (Germany,
Austria), non-German territories being an area of intended German penetration and domination – German leadership position was to be the natural result of economic dominance.
 After the war, the Eastern part of Central Europe was placed at the centre of the concept. At that time the scientists took interest in the idea: the International Historical Congress in
Brussels in 1923 was committed to Central Europe, and the 1933 Congress continued the discussions.
Hungarian scholar Magda Adam wrote in her study Versailles System and Central Europe (2006): "Today we know that the bane of Central Europe was the
Little Entente, military alliance of
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), created in 1921 not for Central Europe's cooperation nor to fight German expansion, but in a wrong perceived notion that a completely powerless Hungary must be kept down".
The avant-garde movements of Central Europe were an essential part of modernism’s evolution, reaching its peak throughout the continent during the 1920s. The Sourcebook of Central European avantgards (Los Angeles County Museum of Art) contains primary documents of the avant-gardes in
Yugoslavia from 1910 to 1930.
 The manifestos and magazines of Western European radical art circles are well known to Western scholars and are being taught at primary universities of their kind in the western world.
, large parts of
, minor parts of
The German term
Mitteleuropa (or alternatively its literal translation into English, Middle Europe
) is an ambiguous German concept.
 It is sometimes used in English to refer to an area somewhat larger than most conceptions of 'Central Europe'; it refers to territories under Germanic
cultural hegemony until World War I (encompassing Austria–Hungary and Germany in their pre-war formations but usually excluding the
Baltic countries north of
East Prussia). According to
Fritz Fischer Mitteleuropa was a scheme in the era of the
Reich of 1871–1918 by which the old imperial elites had allegedly sought to build a system of German economic, military and political domination from the northern seas to the Near East and from the Low Countries through the steppes of Russia to the Caucasus.
 Later on, professor Fritz Epstein argued the threat of a Slavic "Drang nach Westen" (Western expansion) had been a major factor in the emergence of a Mitteleuropa ideology before the Reich of 1871 ever came into being.
In Germany the connotation was also sometimes linked to the pre-war German provinces east of the
Oder-Neisse line which were lost as the result of World War II, annexed by
People's Republic of Poland and the
Soviet Union, and ethnically cleansed of Germans by communist authorities and forces (see
expulsion of Germans after World War II) due to
Yalta Conference and
Potsdam Conference decisions. In this view
Moravia, with its dual
Western Slavic and
Germanic heritage, combined with the historic element of the "
Sudetenland", is a core region illustrating the problems and features of the entire Central European region.
The term "Mitteleuropa" conjures up negative historical associations among some elder people, although the Germans have not played an exclusively negative role in the region.
 Most Central European Jews embraced the enlightened German humanistic culture of the 19th century.
 German-speaking Jews from turn of the 20th century
Prague became representatives of what many consider to be Central European culture at its best, though the Nazi version of "Mitteleuropa" destroyed this kind of culture instead.
 However, the term "Mitteleuropa" is now widely used again in German education and media without negative meaning, especially since the end of communism. In fact, many people from the
new states of Germany do not identify themselves as being part of
Western Europe and therefore prefer the term "Mitteleuropa".
Central Europe behind the Iron Curtain
World War II, large parts of Europe that were culturally and historically Western became part of the
Eastern bloc. Czech author
Milan Kundera (emigrant to France) thus wrote in 1984 about the "Tragedy of Central Europe" in the
New York Review of Books.
 Consequently, the English term Central Europe was increasingly applied only to the westernmost former Warsaw Pact countries (East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary) to specify them as communist states that were culturally tied to Western Europe.
 This usage continued after the end of the Warsaw Pact when these countries started to undergo transition.
The post-World War II period brought blocking of the research on Central Europe in the
Eastern Bloc countries, as its every result proved the dissimilarity of Central Europe, which was inconsistent with the
Stalinist doctrine. On the other hand, the topic became popular in Western Europe and the United States, much of the research being carried out by immigrants from Central Europe.
 At the end of the communism, publicists and historians in Central Europe, especially anti-communist opposition, came back to their research.
According to Karl A. Sinnhuber (Central Europe: Mitteleuropa: Europe Centrale: An Analysis of a Geographical Term)
 most Central European states were unable to preserve their political independence and became Soviet Satellite Europe. Besides
Austria, only marginal Central European states of
Yugoslavia did preserve their political sovereignty to a certain degree, being left out from any military alliances in Europe.
According to Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon,
 Central Europe is a part of Europe composed by the surface of the
Switzerland, and northern marginal regions of
Italy and Yugoslavia (northern states –
Slovenia), as well as northeastern
Rather than a physical entity, Central Europe is a concept of shared history which contrasts with that of the surrounding regions. The issue of how to name and define the Central European region is subject to debates. Very often, the definition depends on the nationality and historical perspective of its author.
Main propositions, gathered by
Jerzy Kłoczowski, include:
- West-Central and
East-Central Europe – this conception, presented in 1950,
 distinguishes two regions in Central Europe: German West-Centre, with imperial tradition of the
Reich, and the East-Centre covered by variety of nations from
Greece, placed between great empires of
Italy and the
- Central Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth –
Lithuanian historians, in cooperation (since 1990) with
Polish historians, insist on the importance of the concept.
- Central Europe as a region connected to the
Western civilisation for a very long time, including countries such as the
Kingdom of Croatia,
Holy Roman Empire, later
German Empire and the
Habsburg Monarchy, the
Kingdom of Hungary and the
Crown of Bohemia. Central Europe understood in this way borders on
South-Eastern Europe, but the exact frontier of the region is difficult to determine.
- Central Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Habsburg Empire (later
Austria-Hungary) – a concept which is popular in regions along the
- A concept underlining the links connecting
Russia and treating the
Russian Empire together with the whole
Orthodox population as one entity – this position is taken by the
- A concept putting an accent on the links with the West, especially from the 19th century and the grand period of liberation and formation of Nation-states – this idea is represented by in the
South-Eastern states, which prefer the enlarged concept of the "East Centre" expressing their links with the
Ronald Tiersky, the 1991 summit held in
Hungary and attended by the
Czechoslovak presidents was hailed at the time as a major breakthrough in Central European cooperation, but the
Visegrád Group became a vehicle for coordinating Central Europe's road to the European Union, while development of closer ties within the region languished.
Peter J. Katzenstein described Central Europe as a way station in a Europeanization process that marks the transformation process of the
Visegrád Group countries in different, though comparable ways.
 According to him, in Germany's contemporary public discourse "Central European identity" refers to the civilizational divide between Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy.
 He says there's no precise, uncontestable way to decide whether the Baltic states, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Romania, and Bulgaria are parts of Central Europe or not.
Lonnie R. Johnson points out criteria to distinguish Central Europe from
- One criterion for defining Central Europe is the frontiers of medieval empires and kingdoms that largely correspond to the religious frontiers between the
Roman Catholic West and the
 The pagans of Central Europe were converted to
Roman Catholicism while in
Eastern Europe they were brought into the fold of the
Eastern Orthodox Church.
- Multinational empires were a characteristic of Central Europe.
Poland, small and medium-size states today, were empires during their early histories.
 The historical
Kingdom of Hungary was until 1918 three times larger than Hungary is today,
 while Poland was the largest state in Europe in the 16th century.
 Both these kingdoms housed a wide variety of different peoples.
He also thinks that Central Europe is a dynamical historical concept, not a static spatial one. For example,
Lithuania, a fair share of
Belarus and western
Ukraine are in
Eastern Europe today, but 230 years ago they were in
Johnson's study on Central Europe received acclaim and positive reviews
 in the scientific community. However, according to Romanian researcher
Maria Bucur this very ambitious project suffers from the weaknesses imposed by its scope (almost 1600 years of history).
The Columbia Encyclopedia defines Central Europe as: Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary.
The World Factbook
 uses the same definition adding Slovenia too.
Encarta Encyclopedia and
Encyclopædia Britannica do not clearly define the region, but Encarta places the same countries into Central Europe in its individual articles on countries, adding Slovenia in "south central Europe".
The German Encyclopaedia Meyers Grosses Taschenlexikon (English: Meyers Big Pocket Encyclopedia), 1999, defines Central Europe as the central part of Europe with no precise borders to the East and West. The term is mostly used to denominate the territory between the
Vistula and from the
Danube to the
Moravian Gate. Usually the countries considered to be Central European are
Switzerland; in the broader sense
Romania too, occasionally also
The European floristic regions