Celtic languages

  • celtic
    geographic
    distribution
    formerly widespread in europe; today cornwall, wales, scotland, ireland, brittany, chubut province, nova scotia and the isle of man
    linguistic classificationindo-european
    • north-west indo-european (?)[1][2]
      • italo-celtic (?)
        • celtic
    proto-languageproto-celtic
    subdivisions
    • insular celtic
    • continental celtic (geographic)
    iso 639-2 / 5cel
    linguasphere50= (phylozone)
    celt1248[3]
    celtic expansion in europe.png
    distribution of celtic speakers:
      hallstatt culture area, 6th century bc
      maximal celtic expansion, c. 275 bc
      lusitanian area; celtic affiliation unclear
      areas where celtic languages are widely spoken in the 21st century

    the celtic languages (usually k/, but sometimes k/)[4] are a group of related languages descended from proto-celtic. they form a branch of the indo-european language family.[5] the term "celtic" was first used to describe this language group by edward lhuyd in 1707,[6] following paul-yves pezron, who made the explicit link between the celts described by classical writers and the welsh and breton languages.[7]

    during the 1st millennium bc, celtic languages were spoken across much of europe and in asia minor. today, they are restricted to the northwestern fringe of europe and a few diaspora communities. there are four living languages: welsh, breton, irish and scottish gaelic. all are minority languages in their respective countries, though there are continuing efforts at revitalisation. welsh is an official language in wales and irish is an official language of ireland and of the european union. welsh is the only celtic language not classified as endangered by unesco. the cornish and manx languages went extinct in modern times. they have been the object of revivals and now each has several hundred second-language speakers.

    irish, scottish and manx form the goidelic languages, while welsh, cornish and breton are brittonic. all of these are insular celtic languages, since breton, the only living celtic language spoken in continental europe, is descended from the language of settlers from britain. there are a number of extinct but attested continental celtic languages, such as celtiberian, galatian and gaulish. beyond that there is no agreement on the subdivisions of the celtic language family. they may be divided into p-celtic and q-celtic.

    the celtic languages have a rich literary tradition. the earliest specimens of written celtic are lepontic inscriptions from the 6th century bc in the alps. early continental inscriptions used italic and paleohispanic scripts. between the 4th and 8th centuries, irish and pictish were occasionally written in an original script, ogham, but the latin alphabet came to be used for all celtic languages. welsh has had a continuous literary tradition from the 6th century ad.

  • living languages
  • classification
  • characteristics
  • possibly celtic languages
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

Celtic
Geographic
distribution
Formerly widespread in Europe; today Cornwall, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Brittany, Chubut Province, Nova Scotia and the Isle of Man
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Proto-languageProto-Celtic
Subdivisions
ISO 639-2 / 5cel
Linguasphere50= (phylozone)
celt1248[3]
Celtic expansion in Europe.png
Distribution of Celtic speakers:
  Hallstatt culture area, 6th century BC
  Maximal Celtic expansion, c. 275 BC
  Lusitanian area; Celtic affiliation unclear
  Areas where Celtic languages are widely spoken in the 21st century

The Celtic languages (usually k/, but sometimes k/)[4] are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic. They form a branch of the Indo-European language family.[5] The term "Celtic" was first used to describe this language group by Edward Lhuyd in 1707,[6] following Paul-Yves Pezron, who made the explicit link between the Celts described by classical writers and the Welsh and Breton languages.[7]

During the 1st millennium BC, Celtic languages were spoken across much of Europe and in Asia Minor. Today, they are restricted to the northwestern fringe of Europe and a few diaspora communities. There are four living languages: Welsh, Breton, Irish and Scottish Gaelic. All are minority languages in their respective countries, though there are continuing efforts at revitalisation. Welsh is an official language in Wales and Irish is an official language of Ireland and of the European Union. Welsh is the only Celtic language not classified as endangered by UNESCO. The Cornish and Manx languages went extinct in modern times. They have been the object of revivals and now each has several hundred second-language speakers.

Irish, Scottish and Manx form the Goidelic languages, while Welsh, Cornish and Breton are Brittonic. All of these are Insular Celtic languages, since Breton, the only living Celtic language spoken in continental Europe, is descended from the language of settlers from Britain. There are a number of extinct but attested continental Celtic languages, such as Celtiberian, Galatian and Gaulish. Beyond that there is no agreement on the subdivisions of the Celtic language family. They may be divided into P-Celtic and Q-Celtic.

The Celtic languages have a rich literary tradition. The earliest specimens of written Celtic are Lepontic inscriptions from the 6th century BC in the Alps. Early Continental inscriptions used Italic and Paleohispanic scripts. Between the 4th and 8th centuries, Irish and Pictish were occasionally written in an original script, Ogham, but the Latin alphabet came to be used for all Celtic languages. Welsh has had a continuous literary tradition from the 6th century AD.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Kelties
Alemannisch: Keltische Sprachen
العربية: لغات كلتية
aragonés: Luengas celtas
azərbaycanca: Kelt dilləri
تۆرکجه: سلت دیللری
беларуская: Кельцкія мовы
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кельцкія мовы
български: Келтски езици
bosanski: Keltski jezici
brezhoneg: Yezhoù keltiek
čeština: Keltské jazyky
davvisámegiella: Kelttalaš gielat
dolnoserbski: Keltiske rěcy
español: Lenguas celtas
Esperanto: Kelta lingvaro
føroyskt: Keltisk mál
한국어: 켈트어파
hornjoserbsce: Keltiske rěče
hrvatski: Keltski jezici
Bahasa Indonesia: Rumpun bahasa Keltik
interlingua: Linguas celtic
italiano: Lingue celtiche
kernowek: Yethow Keltek
Кыргызча: Кельт тилдери
latviešu: Ķeltu valodas
lietuvių: Keltų kalbos
Limburgs: Keltische taole
Lingua Franca Nova: Linguas celta
lumbaart: Lenguv celtich
македонски: Келтски јазици
Malagasy: Fiteny keltika
მარგალური: კელტური ნინეფი
Nederlands: Keltische talen
Nedersaksies: Keltiese talen
日本語: ケルト語派
Nordfriisk: Keltisch
norsk nynorsk: Keltiske språk
Nouormand: Langue Celtique
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kelt tillari
Piemontèis: Lenghe séltiche
português: Línguas celtas
română: Limbi celtice
Runa Simi: Kilta rimaykuna
Simple English: Celtic languages
slovenčina: Keltské jazyky
slovenščina: Keltski jeziki
српски / srpski: Келтски језици
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Keltski jezici
Türkçe: Kelt dilleri
Türkmençe: Kelt dilleri
українська: Кельтські мови
vepsän kel’: Kel'tižed keled
Tiếng Việt: Ngữ tộc Celt
walon: Gayel
West-Vlams: Keltische toaln
žemaitėška: Keltu kalbas