Catkin

A catkin or ament is a slim, cylindrical flower cluster (a spike), with inconspicuous or no petals, usually wind-pollinated (anemophilous) but sometimes insect-pollinated (as in Salix). They contain many, usually unisexual flowers, arranged closely along a central stem which is often drooping. They are found in many plant families, including Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Moraceae, and Salicaceae. For some time, they were believed to be a key synapomorphy among the proposed Hamamelididae, also known as Amentiferae (i.e., literally plants bearing aments). Based on molecular phylogeny work, it is now believed that Hamamelididae is a polyphyletic group.[1][2] This suggests that the catkin flower arrangement has arisen at least twice independently by convergent evolution, in Fagales and in Salicaceae.[3] Such a convergent evolution raises questions about what the ancestral inflorescence characters might be and how catkins did evolve in these two lineages.

In many of these plants, only the male flowers form catkins, and the female flowers are single (hazel, oak), a cone (alder) or other types (mulberry). In other plants (such as poplar) both male and female flowers are borne in catkins.

Catkin-bearing plants include many other trees or shrubs such as birch, willow, hickory, sweet chestnut and sweetfern (Comptonia).

The word catkin is a loanword from the old Dutch katteken, meaning "kitten", on account of the resemblance to a kitten's tail.[4] Ament is from the Latin amentum, meaning "thong" or "strap".[5]

Occurrence

In Britain, they can be seen in January or February, when many trees are bare for winter. They can even occur in December.[6]

Other Languages
العربية: عسيل الصفصاف
беларуская: Каташок
български: Реса
Boarisch: Poimkatzal
čeština: Jehněda
dansk: Rakle
Deutsch: Kätzchen
eesti: Urb
español: Amento
Esperanto: Amento
galego: Amento
íslenska: Rekill
italiano: Amento
lietuvių: Žirginys
Limburgs: Ketje
lumbaart: Amènt
македонски: Реса (ботаника)
Nederlands: Katje
Nedersaksies: Katjen
日本語: 尾状花序
norsk nynorsk: Rakle
Picard: Bàrbilhéte
português: Amento
română: Ament
русский: Серёжка
slovenščina: Mačica
српски / srpski: Реса (цваст)
suomi: Norkko
Türkçe: Kedicik
українська: Сережка (ботаніка)
Tiếng Việt: Hoa đuôi sóc
žemaitėška: Žirgėns
中文: 葇荑花序