Catholic Church

Emblem of the Holy See
Catholic Church
Latin: Ecclesia Catholica
Saint Peter's Basilica
PolityEpiscopal[1]
HeadPope Francis
AdministrationRoman Curia
Particular churches
sui iuris
24: Latin Church, and 23 Eastern Catholic Churches
Dioceses
Parishes221,700
LanguageLatin, and native languages
LiturgyWestern, and Eastern
HeadquartersVatican City
(and extraterritorial properties)
FounderJesus Christ, according to
Catholic tradition
Origin1st century
Jerusalem, Judea
Roman Empire[2][3]
Members1.299 billion (2016)[4]
Clergy
Official websiteHoly See

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2016.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within Rome, Italy.

Catholic theology is based on the Nicene Creed. The Catholic Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic church founded by Jesus Christ,[6][7][note 1] that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles, and that the Pope is the successor to Saint Peter to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus Christ.[10] It maintains that it practises the original Christian faith, reserving infallibility, passed down by sacred tradition.[11] The Latin Church, the twenty-three Eastern Catholic Churches, and institutes such as mendicant orders and enclosed monastic orders reflect a variety of theological and spiritual emphases in the church.[12][13]

Of its seven sacraments the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in the Mass.[14] The church teaches that through consecration by a priest the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ. The Virgin Mary is venerated in the Catholic Church as Mother of God and Queen of Heaven, honoured in dogmas and devotions.[15] Its teaching includes sanctification through faith and evangelisation of the Gospel as well as Catholic social teaching, which emphasises voluntary support for the sick, the poor, and the afflicted through the corporal and spiritual works of mercy. The Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world.[16]

The Catholic Church has influenced Western philosophy, culture, science, and art. Catholics live all over the world through missions, diaspora, and conversions. Since the 20th century the majority reside in the southern hemisphere due to secularisation in Europe, and increased persecution in the Middle East.

The Catholic Church shared communion with the Eastern Orthodox Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, disputing particularly the authority of the Pope, as well as with the Oriental Orthodox churches prior to the Chalcedonian schism in 451 over differences in Christology. The Reformation of the 16th century resulted in Protestantism breaking away.

From the late 20th century, the Catholic Church has been criticised for its doctrines on sexuality, its refusal to ordain women, as well as the handling of sexual abuse cases involving clergy.

Name

The first use of the term "Catholic Church" (literally meaning "universal church") was by the church father Saint Ignatius of Antioch in his Letter to the Smyrnaeans (circa 100 AD).[17] He died in Rome, with his relics located in the Basilica of San Clemente al Laterano.

Catholic (from Greek: καθολικός, translit. katholikos, lit. 'universal') was first used to describe the church in the early 2nd century.[18] The first known use of the phrase "the catholic church" (καθολικὴ ἐκκλησία he katholike ekklesia) occurred in the letter written about 110 AD from Saint Ignatius of Antioch to the Smyrnaeans.[note 2] In the Catechetical Lectures (c. 350) of Saint Cyril of Jerusalem, the name "Catholic Church" was used to distinguish it from other groups that also called themselves "the church".[19][20] The "Catholic" notion was further stressed in the edict De fide Catolica issued 380 by Theodosius I, the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire, when establishing the state church of the Roman Empire.[21]

Since the East–West Schism of 1054, the Eastern Church has taken the adjective "Orthodox" as its distinctive epithet (however, its official name continues to be the "Orthodox Catholic Church"[22]) and the Western Church in communion with the Holy See has similarly taken "Catholic", keeping that description also after the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, when those who ceased to be in communion became known as "Protestants".[23][24]

While the "Roman Church" has been used to describe the pope's Diocese of Rome since the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and into the Early Middle Ages (6th–10th century), the "Roman Catholic Church" has been applied to the whole church in English language since the Protestant Reformation in the late 16th century.[25] "Roman Catholic" has occasionally appeared also in documents produced both by the Holy See,[note 3] notably applied to certain national episcopal conferences, and local dioceses.[note 4]

The name "Catholic Church" for the whole church is used in the Catechism of the Catholic Church (1990), and the Code of Canon Law (1983). It was equivally applied in the documents of the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965), the First Vatican Council (1869–1870),[26] the Council of Trent (1545–1563),[27] and numerous other official documents.[28][29][30]

Other Languages
Ænglisc: Rēmisc Cirice
aragonés: Ilesia Catolica
asturianu: Ilesia Católica
azərbaycanca: Roma-Katolik kilsəsi
Bân-lâm-gú: Thian-chú-kàu
Basa Banyumasan: Gereja Katolik Roma
башҡортса: Католик сиркәүе
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Каталіцкая Царква
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Iglesia romano catolico
Diné bizaad: Ééʼ neishoodii
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Ceṡa Catòlica
Esperanto: Katolika Eklezio
estremeñu: Elésia católica
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Katolik firgoz
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thiên-chú-kau
Bahasa Indonesia: Gereja Katolik Roma
interlingua: Ecclesia Catholic
Kiswahili: Kanisa Katoliki
Kreyòl ayisyen: Legliz Katolik
Lëtzebuergesch: Kathoulesch Kierch
مازِرونی: کاتولیک کلیسا
Bahasa Melayu: Gereja Roman Katolik
Baso Minangkabau: Gereja Katolik Roma
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Lò̤-mā-tiĕng-ciō-gáu
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရိုမန်ကတ်သလစ်
Napulitano: Chiesia cattoleca
norsk nynorsk: Den katolske kyrkja
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Katolik cherkovi
پنجابی: کیتھولک چرچ
Piemontèis: Cesa Catòlica
português: Igreja Católica
Simple English: Catholic Church
српски / srpski: Католичка црква
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Katolička crkva
татарча/tatarça: Katolik çirkäw
West-Vlams: Katholieke kerke
吴语: 天主敎會
粵語: 天主教會
中文: 天主教會
Lingua Franca Nova: Eglesa Catolica