Catfish

Siluriformes
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous – present 100–0 Ma
Ameiurus melas by Duane Raver.png
Black bullhead
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Actinopterygii
Superorder:Ostariophysi
Order:Siluriformes
G. Cuvier, 1817
Families[2]

– Extant families -
Ailiidae[1]
Akysidae
Amblycipitidae
Amphiliidae
Anchariidae
Ariidae
Aspredinidae
Astroblepidae
Auchenipteridae
Austroglanididae
Bagridae
Callichthyidae
Cetopsidae
Chacidae
Clariidae
Claroteidae
Cranoglanididae
Diplomystidae
Doradidae
Erethistidae
Heptapteridae
Heteropneustidae
Horabagridae [1]
Ictaluridae
Kryptoglanidae
Lacantuniidae
Loricariidae
Malapteruridae
Mochokidae
Nematogenyiidae
Pangasiidae
Pimelodidae
Plotosidae
Pseudopimelodidae
Schilbeidae
Scoloplacidae
Siluridae
Sisoridae
Trichomycteridae

incertae sedis
  Conorhynchos

– Extinct family -
Andinichthyidae 

Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. Named for their prominent barbels, which resemble a cat's whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the three largest species, the Mekong giant catfish from Southeast Asia, the wels catfish of Eurasia and the piraíba of South America, to detritivores (species that eat dead material on the bottom), and even to a tiny parasitic species commonly called the candiru, Vandellia cirrhosa. There are armour-plated types and there are also naked types, neither having scales. Despite their name, not all catfish have prominent barbels. Members of the Siluriformes order are defined by features of the skull and swimbladder. Catfish are of considerable commercial importance; many of the larger species are farmed or fished for food. Many of the smaller species, particularly the genus Corydoras, are important in the aquarium hobby. Many catfish are nocturnal,[3][4] but others (many Auchenipteridae) are crepuscular or diurnal (most Loricariidae or Callichthyidae, for example).

Ecology

Distribution and habitat

Catfish vendor in Ilorin, Kwara

Extant catfish species live inland or in coastal waters of every continent except Antarctica. Catfish have inhabited all continents at one time or another.[5] Catfish are most diverse in tropical South America, Asia and Africa with one family native to North America and one family in Europe.[6] More than half of all catfish species live in the Americas. They are the only ostariophysans that have entered freshwater habitats in Madagascar, Australia, and New Guinea.[7]

They are found in freshwater environments, though most inhabit shallow, running water.[7] Representatives of at least eight families are hypogean (live underground) with three families that are also troglobitic (inhabiting caves).[8][9] One such species is Phreatobius cisternarum, known to live underground in phreatic habitats.[10] Numerous species from the families Ariidae and Plotosidae, and a few species from among the Aspredinidae and Bagridae, are found in salt water.[11][12]

In the Southern United States, catfish species may be known by a variety of slang names, such as "mud cat", "polliwogs", or "chuckleheads".[13] These nicknames are not standardized, so one area may call a bullhead catfish by the nickname "chucklehead", while in another state or region, that nickname refers to the blue catfish.

As invasive species

Representatives of the genus Ictalurus have been introduced into European waters in the hope of obtaining a sporting and food resource. However, the European stock of American catfishes has not achieved the dimensions of these fish in their native waters, and have only increased the ecological pressure on native European fauna. Walking catfish have also been introduced in the freshwaters of Florida, with the voracious catfish becoming a major alien pest there. Flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, is also a North American pest on Atlantic slope drainages.[6] Pterygoplichthys species, released by aquarium fishkeepers, have also established feral populations in many warm waters around the world.[14][15][16][17][18]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Siluriformes
asturianu: Siluriformes
azərbaycanca: Naxakimilər
беларуская: Сомападобныя
català: Siluriformes
Cebuano: Siluriformes
čeština: Sumci
chiShona: Muramba
dansk: Malle
Deutsch: Welsartige
Diné bizaad: Dághaałóóʼ
eesti: Sägalised
español: Siluriformes
Esperanto: Katfiŝo
euskara: Siluriforme
français: Siluriformes
Gaeilge: Cat mara
galego: Siluriformes
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Sangot
한국어: 메기목
hrvatski: Somovke
Bahasa Indonesia: Siluriformes
interlingua: Siluriformes
íslenska: Granar
italiano: Siluriformes
עברית: שפמנונאים
Kapampangan: Itu
Kongo: Didongo
Latina: Siluriformes
latviešu: Samveidīgās
lietuvių: Šamažuvės
मराठी: शिंगळा
Bahasa Melayu: Ikan Keli
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Tàng-táik
Nederlands: Meervalachtigen
日本語: ナマズ目
norsk: Maller
norsk nynorsk: Mallefisk
occitan: Siluriformes
português: Siluriformes
română: Siluriforme
Runa Simi: Bagri
русский: Сомообразные
Simple English: Catfish
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Barski som
suomi: Monnikalat
Tagalog: Hito
தமிழ்: கெளிறு
తెలుగు: పిల్లి చేప
Tsetsêhestâhese: Ȧxeohōva
Türkçe: Kedi balığı
українська: Сомоподібні
Tiếng Việt: Bộ Cá da trơn
Winaray: Siluriformes
粵語: 鯰魚
中文: 鮎形目