Caribbean

Caribbean
Antillas (orthographic projection).svg
Area2,754,000 km2 (1,063,000 sq mi)
Land area239,681 km2 (92,541 sq mi)
Population (2016)43,601,839[1]
Density151.5/km2 (392/sq mi)
Ethnic groupsAfro-Caribbean, European, Indo-Caribbean, Latino or Hispanic (Spanish, Portuguese, Mestizo, Mulatto, Pardo, and Zambo), Chinese Caribbean, Jewish, Arab, Javanese,[2] Amerindian, Multiracial
ReligionsChristianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, Rastafarianism, Amerindian Religion, Yoruba, Bahá'í, Chinese folk religion (including Taoism and Confucianism), Kebatinan, Afro-American religion, Traditional African Religion, and others
DemonymCaribbean, West Indian
LanguagesSpanish, English, French, Dutch, French Creoles, English Creoles, Caribbean Hindustani, among others
Government13 sovereign states
17 dependent territories
Largest citiesList of metropolitan areas in the West Indies
Santo Domingo
Havana
Port-au-Prince
San Juan
Kingston
Santiago de Cuba
Santiago de los Caballeros
Camagüey
Cap-Haïtien
Spanish Town
Chaguanas
Georgetown
Paramaribo
Internet TLDMultiple
Calling codeMultiple
Time zoneUTC-5 to UTC-4

The Caribbean (n/, locally n/)[3] is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea[4] and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean)[5] and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.

Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets, reefs and cays. (See the list.) These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea.[6] The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east (including the Leeward Antilles), are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which also includes the Lucayan Archipelago (comprising the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands). The Lucayans and, less commonly, Bermuda, are also sometimes considered Caribbean despite the fact that none of these islands border the Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries, regions, and territories of Belize, the Caribbean region of Colombia, Cozumel, the Yucatán Peninsula, Margarita Island, the Guyanas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Guayana Region in Venezuela, and Amapá in Brazil), are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.[7]

Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America[8][9][10][11][12] and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies.[13] From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was also a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then British dependencies. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations.

Etymology and pronunciation

The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest of America.[14]

The two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" outside the Caribbean are n/ (BEE-ən), with the primary stress on the third syllable, and n/ (RIB-ee-ən), with the stress on the second. Most authorities of the last century preferred the stress on the third syllable.[15] This is the older of the two pronunciations, but the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years.[16] It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer n/ (BEE-ən) while North American speakers more typically use n/ (RIB-ee-ən),[17] but major American dictionaries and other sources list the stress on the third syllable as more common in American English too.[18][19][20][21] According to the American version of Oxford Online Dictionaries, the stress on the second syllable is becoming more common in UK English and is increasingly considered "by some" to be more up to date and more "correct".[22]

The Oxford Online Dictionaries claim that the stress on the second syllable is the most common pronunciation in the Caribbean itself, but according to the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, the most common pronunciation in Caribbean English is in fact on the first syllable, n/ (KARR-ə-bee-ən).[3][22]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Karibiese gebied
Alemannisch: Karibik
አማርኛ: ካሪቢያን
العربية: الكاريبي
Avañe'ẽ: Karíve
azərbaycanca: Karib hövzəsi
Bân-lâm-gú: Caribe Tē-khu
беларуская: Карыбы
български: Карибски регион
བོད་ཡིག: ཁེ་ར་བི་ཧན།
català: Carib
čeština: Karibik
Cymraeg: Y Caribî
dansk: Caribien
Deutsch: Karibik
Ελληνικά: Καραϊβική
Esperanto: Karibio
فارسی: کارائیب
Fiji Hindi: Caribbean Sea
føroyskt: Karibia
français: Caraïbes
furlan: Caraibs
Gĩkũyũ: Caribbean
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Caribe Thi-khî
한국어: 카리브 제도
हिन्दी: कॅरीबियाई
hrvatski: Karibi
Ilokano: Karibe
Bahasa Indonesia: Kepulauan Karibia
íslenska: Karíbahafseyjar
italiano: Caraibi
עברית: הקריביים
ქართული: კარიბები
қазақша: Карибтер
Kongo: Karibe
Kreyòl ayisyen: Karayib
kurdî: Karîb
latviešu: Karību reģions
Lëtzebuergesch: Karibik
македонски: Карипски Острови
മലയാളം: കരീബിയൻ
मराठी: कॅरिबियन
მარგალური: კარიბეფი
Bahasa Melayu: Caribbean
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Caribe dê-kṳ̆
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကာရစ်ဘီယံ
Nederlands: Caraïben
нохчийн: Вест-Инди
Nordfriisk: Kariibik
norsk: Karibia
norsk nynorsk: Karibia
occitan: Cariba
Oromoo: Karibiyaan
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੈਰੀਬੀਆ
Patois: Kiaribiyan
Plattdüütsch: Karibik
polski: Karaiby
português: Caribe
română: Caraibe
संस्कृतम्: वेष्ट्-इण्डीस्
sardu: Caràibes
Scots: Caribbean
Seeltersk: Karibik
shqip: Karaibet
Simple English: Caribbean
slovenčina: Karibik
slovenščina: Karibi
Soomaaliga: Kaaribiyaan
کوردی: کاریبی
српски / srpski: Кариби
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Karibi
suomi: Karibia
Tagalog: Karibe
தமிழ்: கரிபியன்
Türkçe: Karayipler
українська: Кариби
اردو: کیریبین
vèneto: Caraibi
Tiếng Việt: Vùng Caribe
West-Vlams: Karajiebn
Winaray: Caribe
粵語: 加勒比