Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest
Synonyms Cardiopulmonary arrest, circulatory arrest, sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), sudden cardiac death (SCD) [1]
US Navy 040421-N-8090G-001 Hospital Corpsman 3rd Class Flowers administers chest compressions to a simulated cardiac arrest victim.jpg
CPR being administered during a simulation of cardiac arrest.
Specialty Cardiology
Symptoms Loss of consciousness, abnormal or no breathing [1] [2]
Usual onset Older age [3]
Causes Coronary artery disease, major blood loss, lack of oxygen, very low potassium, heart failure [4]
Diagnostic method Finding no pulse [1]
Prevention Not smoking, physical activity, maintaining a healthy weight [5]
Treatment Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation [6]
Prognosis Average survival 8% [7]
Frequency 13 per 10,000 people per year (outside hospital in the US) [8]

Cardiac arrest is a sudden stop in effective blood flow due to the failure of the heart to contract effectively. [9] Symptoms include loss of consciousness and abnormal or absent breathing. [1] [2] Some people may have chest pain, shortness of breath, or nausea before this occurs. [2] If not treated within minutes, death usually occurs. [9]

The most common cause of cardiac arrest is coronary artery disease. [4] Less common causes include major blood loss, lack of oxygen, very low potassium, heart failure, and intense physical exercise. [4] A number of inherited disorders may also increase the risk including long QT syndrome. [4] The initial heart rhythm is most often ventricular fibrillation. [4] The diagnosis is confirmed by finding no pulse. [1] While a cardiac arrest may be caused by heart attack or heart failure, these are not the same. [9]

Prevention includes not smoking, physical activity, and maintaining a healthy weight. [5] Treatment for cardiac arrest is immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and, if a shockable rhythm is present, defibrillation. [6] Among those who survive targeted temperature management may improve outcomes. [10] An implantable cardiac defibrillator may be placed to reduce the chance of death from recurrence. [5]

In the United States, cardiac arrest outside hospital occurs in about 13 per 10,000 people per year (326,000 cases). [8] In hospital cardiac arrest occurs in an additional 209,000. [8] Cardiac arrest becomes more common with age. [3] It affects males more often than females. [3] The percentage of people who survive with treatment is about 8%. [7] Many who survive have significant disability. [7] Many U.S. television shows, however, have portrayed unrealistically high survival rates of 67%. [7]

Signs and symptoms

Cardiac arrest is sometimes preceded by certain symptoms such as fainting, fatigue, blackouts, dizziness, chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, and vomiting. [11] The arrest may also occur with no warning.

When the arrest occurs, the most obvious sign of its occurrence will be the lack of a palpable pulse in the person experiencing it (since the heart has ceased to contract, the usual indications of its contraction such as a pulse will no longer be detectable). Certain types of prompt intervention can often reverse a cardiac arrest, but without such intervention the event will almost always lead to death. [12] In certain cases, it is an expected outcome of a serious illness where death is expected. [13]

Also, as a result of inadequate cerebral perfusion, the patient will quickly become unconscious and will have stopped breathing. The main diagnostic criterion to diagnose a cardiac arrest (as opposed to respiratory arrest which shares many of the same features) is lack of circulation; however, there are a number of ways of determining this. Near-death experiences are reported by 10–20% of people who survived cardiac arrest. [14]

Other Languages
العربية: توقف القلب
dansk: Hjertestop
ދިވެހިބަސް: ހިތް ހުއްޓުން
فارسی: ایست قلبی
ગુજરાતી: હૃદયસ્તંભતા
한국어: 심정지
hrvatski: Kardiogeni šok
Bahasa Indonesia: Gagal jantung
interlingua: Arresto cardiac
íslenska: Hjartastopp
עברית: דום לב
Basa Jawa: Gagal jantung
मैथिली: हृदयघात
Nederlands: Hartstilstand
नेपाली: हृदयघात
日本語: 心停止
norsk nynorsk: Hjartestans
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ହୃଦ୍‌ରୋଧ
Simple English: Cardiac arrest
slovenščina: Srčni zastoj
српски / srpski: Срчани застој
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Srčani zastoj
Türkçe: Kalp durması
українська: Зупинка серця
Tiếng Việt: Ngừng tim
粵語: 心臟驟停
中文: 心搏停止