Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest
SynonymsCardiopulmonary arrest, circulatory arrest, sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), sudden cardiac death (SCD)[1]
US Navy 040421-N-8090G-001 Hospital Corpsman 3rd Class Flowers administers chest compressions to a simulated cardiac arrest victim.jpg
CPR being administered during a simulation of cardiac arrest.
SpecialtyCardiology
SymptomsLoss of consciousness, abnormal or no breathing[1][2]
Usual onsetOlder age[3]
CausesCoronary artery disease, major blood loss, lack of oxygen, very low potassium, heart failure[4]
Diagnostic methodFinding no pulse[1]
PreventionNot smoking, physical activity, maintaining a healthy weight[5]
TreatmentCardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation[6]
PrognosisAverage survival 8%[7]
Frequency13 per 10,000 people per year (outside hospital in the US)[8]

Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.[9] Symptoms include loss of consciousness and abnormal or absent breathing.[1][2] Some individuals may experience chest pain, shortness of breath, or nausea before cardiac arrest.[2] If not treated within minutes, it usually leads to death.[9]

The most common cause of cardiac arrest is coronary artery disease.[4] Less common causes include major blood loss, lack of oxygen, very low potassium, heart failure, and intense physical exercise.[4] A number of inherited disorders may also increase the risk including long QT syndrome.[4] The initial heart rhythm is most often ventricular fibrillation.[4] The diagnosis is confirmed by finding no pulse.[1] While a cardiac arrest may be caused by heart attack or heart failure, these are not the same.[9]

Prevention includes not smoking, physical activity, and maintaining a healthy weight.[5] Treatment for cardiac arrest include immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and, if a shockable rhythm is present, defibrillation.[6] Among those who survive, targeted temperature management may improve outcomes.[10] An implantable cardiac defibrillator may be placed to reduce the chance of death from recurrence.[5]

In the United States, cardiac arrest outside hospital occurs in about 13 per 10,000 people per year (326,000 cases).[8] In hospital cardiac arrest occurs in an additional 209,000.[8] Cardiac arrest becomes more common with age.[3] It affects males more often than females.[3] The percentage of people who survive with treatment is about 8%.[7] Many who survive have significant disability.[7] Many U.S. television shows, however, have portrayed unrealistically high survival rates of 67%.[7]

Signs and symptoms

Cardiac arrest is preceded by no warning symptoms in approximately 50 percent of people.[11] For those who do experience symptoms, they will be non-specific, such as new or worsening chest pain, fatigue, blackouts, dizziness, shortness of breath, weakness and vomiting.[12] When cardiac arrest occurs, the most obvious sign of its occurrence will be the lack of a palpable pulse in the victim. Also, as a result of loss of cerebral perfusion (blood flow to the brain), the victim will rapidly lose consciousness and will stop breathing. The main criterion for diagnosing a cardiac arrest, as opposed to respiratory arrest, which shares many of the same features, is lack of circulation; however, there are a number of ways of determining this. Near-death experiences are reported by 10 to –20 percent of people who survived cardiac arrest.[13]

Certain types of prompt intervention can often reverse a cardiac arrest, but without such intervention, death is all but certain.[14] In certain cases, cardiac arrest is an anticipated outcome of a serious illness where death is expected.[15]

Other Languages
العربية: توقف القلب
dansk: Hjertestop
ދިވެހިބަސް: ހިތް ހުއްޓުން
فارسی: ایست قلبی
ગુજરાતી: હૃદયસ્તંભતા
한국어: 심정지
Հայերեն: Սրտի կանգ
hrvatski: Kardiogeni šok
interlingua: Arresto cardiac
íslenska: Hjartastopp
עברית: דום לב
Basa Jawa: Gagal jantung
मैथिली: हृदयघात
Nederlands: Hartstilstand
नेपाली: हृदयघात
日本語: 心停止
norsk nynorsk: Hjartestans
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ହୃଦ୍‌ରୋଧ
português: Parada cardíaca
Simple English: Cardiac arrest
slovenščina: Srčni zastoj
српски / srpski: Срчани застој
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Srčani zastoj
Türkçe: Kalp durması
українська: Зупинка серця
Tiếng Việt: Ngừng tim
粵語: 心臟驟停
中文: 心搏停止