Caracalla

Caracalla
Caracalla MAN Napoli Inv6033 n01.jpg
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Emperor211 - 18 April 217
PredecessorSeptimius Severus
SuccessorMacrinus
Co-emperors
Co-emperor198 – 211
Born4 April 188
Lugdunum
Died8 April 217(217-04-08) (aged 29)
On the road between Edessa and Carrhae
Wife
Full name
Lucius Septimius Bassianus
Regnal name
  • Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Caesar (195 to 198)
  • Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (198 to 211)
DynastySeveran
FatherSeptimius Severus
MotherJulia Domna

Caracalla (ə/; Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus;[1] 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD. He was a member of the Severan Dynasty, the elder son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. Co-ruler with his father from 198, he continued to rule with his brother Geta, emperor from 209, after their father's death in 211. He had his brother murdered later that year, and reigned afterwards as sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Caracalla's reign was marked by domestic instability and external invasions from the Germanic people.

Caracalla's reign was notable for the Antonine Constitution (Latin: Constitutio Antoniniana), also known as the Edict of Caracalla, which granted Roman citizenship to nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. The edict gave all the enfranchised men Caracalla's adopted praenomen and nomen: "Marcus Aurelius". Domestically, Caracalla was known for the construction of the Baths of Caracalla, which became the second-largest baths in Rome; for the introduction of a new Roman currency named the antoninianus, a sort of double denarius; and for the massacres he enacted against the people of Rome and elsewhere in the empire. Towards the end of his rule, Caracalla began a campaign against the Parthian Empire. He did not see this campaign through to completion due to his assassination by a disaffected soldier in 217. He was succeeded as emperor by Macrinus after three days.

Caracalla is presented in ancient sources as a tyrant and cruel leader, an image that has survived into modernity. Dio Cassius and Herodian present Caracalla as a soldier first and emperor second. In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth started the legend of Caracalla's role as the king of Britain. Later, in the 18th century, Caracalla's memory was revived in the works of French artists due to the parallels between Caracalla's apparent tyranny and that of King Louis XVI. Modern works continue to portray Caracalla as a psychopathic and evil ruler. His rule is remembered as being one of the most tyrannical of all Roman emperors.

Names

Caracalla was born Lucius Septimius Bassianus. He was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus at the age of seven as part of his father's attempt at union with the families of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius.[2][3] According to Aurelius Victor in his Epitome de Caesaribus, he became known by the agnomen "Caracalla" after a Gallic hooded tunic that he habitually wore and made fashionable.[1] He may have begun wearing it during his campaigns on the Rhine and Danube.[4] Dio generally referred to him as Tarautas, after a famously diminutive and violent gladiator of the time.[5]

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