View of Cappadocia landscape
The earliest record of the name of Cappadocia dates from the late 6th century
BC, when it appears in the trilingual inscriptions of two early
Darius I and
Xerxes, as one of the countries (
Old Persian dahyu-) of the
Persian Empire. In these lists of countries, the Old Persian name is Haspaduya, which according to some researchers is derived from Iranian Huw-aspa-dahyu- "the land/country of beautiful horses".
Others proposed that Kat-patuka came from the
Luwian language, meaning "Low Country".
 Subsequent research suggests that the adverb katta meaning 'down, below' is exclusively
Hittite, while its Luwian equivalent is zanta.
 Therefore the recent modification of this proposal operates with the Hittite katta peda-, literally "place below" as a starting point for the development of the toponym Cappadocia.
Herodotus tells us that the name of the Cappadocians was applied to them by the
Persians, while they were termed by the
Greeks "Syrians" or "White Syrians"
Leucosyri. One of the Cappadocian tribes he mentions is the Moschoi, associated by
Flavius Josephus with the biblical figure
Meshech, son of
Japheth: "and the Mosocheni were founded by Mosoch; now they are Cappadocians".
Cappadocia appears in the
Acts 2:9. The Cappadocians were named as one group hearing the
Gospel account from
Galileans in their own language on the day of
Pentecost shortly after the
Acts 2:5 seems to suggest that the Cappadocians in this account were "God-fearing
Acts of the Apostles.
The region is also mentioned in the Jewish
Under the later kings of the Persian Empire, the Cappadocians were divided into two
satrapies, or governments, with one comprising the central and inland portion, to which the name of Cappadocia continued to be applied by
Greek geographers, while the other was called
Pontus. This division had already come about before the time of
Xenophon. As after the fall of the Persian government the two provinces continued to be separate, the distinction was perpetuated, and the name Cappadocia came to be restricted to the inland province (sometimes called Great Cappadocia), which alone will be the focus of this article.
The kingdom of Cappadocia still existed in the time of
Strabo (ca 64 BC - ca AD 24 ) as a nominally independent state.
Cilicia was the name given to the district in which
Caesarea, the capital of the whole country, was situated. The only two cities of Cappadocia considered by Strabo to deserve that appellation were
Caesarea (originally known as
Tyana, not far from the foot of the