Cape Town

Cape Town
Kaapstad (in Afrikaans)
iKapa (in Xhosa)
Clockwise from top: Cape Town CBD, Strand, Clifton beach, Table Mountain, Port of Cape Town, Cape Town City Hall
Coat of arms of Cape Town
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Mother City, Tavern of the Seas
Motto(s): Spes Bona ( Latin for "Good Hope")
Cape Town is located in Western Cape
Cape Town
Cape Town
Cape Town is located in South Africa
Cape Town
Cape Town
Cape Town is located in Africa
Cape Town
Cape Town
 Cape Town shown within Western Cape
Coordinates: 33°55′31″S 18°25′26″E / 33°55′31″S 18°25′26″E / -33.92528; 18.42389
Country South Africa
Province Western Cape
Municipality City of Cape Town
Founded 1652
Government [1]
 • Type Metropolitan municipality
 •  Mayor Patricia de Lille ( DA)
 •  Council Cape Town City Council
 •  City manager Achmat Ebrahim
Area [2]
 • City 400.28 km2 (154.55 sq mi)
 • Metro 2,444.97 km2 (944.01 sq mi)
Highest elevation 1,590.4 m (5,217.8 ft)
Lowest elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (2011) [2]
 • City 433,688
 • Density 1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
 •  Metro [3] 3,740,026
 • Metro density 1,500/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Capetonian
Racial makeup (2011) [2]
 •  Black African 15.8%
 •  Coloured 44.6%
 •  Indian/ Asian 3.4%
 •  White 32.3%
 • Other 3.9%
First languages (2011) [2]
 •  English 67.7%
 •  Afrikaans 22.5%
 •  Xhosa 2.7%
 • Other 7.1%
Postal code (street) 7400 to 8099
PO box 8000
Area code +27 (0)21
HDI Increase 0.74 High (2010) [4]
GDP US$ 58.9 billion [5]
GDP per capita US$15,918 [5]
Website www.capetown.gov.za

Cape Town ( Afrikaans: Kaapstad, [ˈkɑːpstat]) is a coastal city in South Africa. It is the second-most populous urban area in South Africa after Johannesburg. [6] It is also the capital and primate city of the Western Cape province. [7]

As the seat of the Parliament of South Africa, it is also the legislative capital of the country. [8] It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality. The city is famous for its harbour, for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region, and for such well-known landmarks as Table Mountain and Cape Point. As of 2014, it is the 10th most populous city[ clarification needed] in Africa and home to 64% of the Western Cape's population. [9] It is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates [10] to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design. [11] In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both the American New York Times [12] and the British Daily Telegraph. [13]

Located on the shore of Table Bay, Cape Town was first developed by the Dutch East India Company as a victualling (supply) station for Dutch ships sailing to East Africa, India, and the Far East. Jan van Riebeeck's arrival on 6 April 1652 established the first permanent European settlement in South Africa. Cape Town quickly outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony. Until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa.

History

History of Cape Town
View of Table Bay with ships of the Dutch East India Company, c. 1683
A model of Cape Town as it would have appeared in 1800.

The earliest known remnants in the region were found at Peers Cave in Fish Hoek and date to between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago. [14] Little is known of the history of the region's first residents, since there is no written history from the area before it was first mentioned by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in 1486 who was the first European to reach the area and named it "Cape of Storms" (Cabo das Tormentas). It was later renamed by John II of Portugal as "Cape of Good Hope" (Cabo da Boa Esperança) because of the great optimism engendered by the opening of a sea route to India and the East. Vasco da Gama recorded a sighting of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497. In the late 16th century, Portuguese, French, Danish, Dutch and English but mainly Portuguese ships regularly stopped over in Table Bay en route to the Indies. They traded tobacco, copper and iron with the Khoikhoi in exchange for fresh meat.

In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck and other employees of the Dutch East India Company ( Dutch: Verenigde Oost-indische Compagnie, VOC) were sent to the Cape to establish a way-station for ships travelling to the Dutch East Indies, and the Fort de Goede Hoop (later replaced by the Castle of Good Hope). The settlement grew slowly during this period, as it was hard to find adequate labour. This labour shortage prompted the authorities to import slaves from Indonesia and Madagascar. Many of these became ancestors of the first Cape Coloured communities. [15] [16] Under Van Riebeeck and his successors as VOC commanders and later governors at the Cape, an impressive range of useful plants were introduced to the Cape – in the process changing the natural environment forever. Some of these, including grapes, cereals, ground nuts, potatoes, apples and citrus, had an important and lasting influence on the societies and economies of the region. [17]

The Dutch Republic being transformed in Revolutionary France's vassal Batavian Republic, Great Britain moved to take control of its colonies. Britain captured Cape Town in 1795, but the Cape was returned to the Dutch by treaty in 1803. British forces occupied the Cape again in 1806 following the Battle of Blaauwberg. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Cape Town was permanently ceded to Britain. It became the capital of the newly formed Cape Colony, whose territory expanded very substantially through the 1800s. With expansion came calls for greater independence from Britain, with the Cape attaining its own parliament (1854) and a locally accountable Prime Minister (1872). Suffrage was established according to the non-racial, but sexist Cape Qualified Franchise. [18] [19]

The discovery of diamonds in Griqualand West in 1867, and the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886, prompted a flood of immigrants to South Africa. [20] Conflicts between the Boer republics in the interior and the British colonial government resulted in the Second Boer War of 1899–1902, which Britain won. In 1910, Britain established the Union of South Africa, which unified the Cape Colony with the two defeated Boer Republics and the British colony of Natal. Cape Town became the legislative capital of the Union, and later of the Republic of South Africa.

In the 1948 national elections, the National Party won on a platform of apartheid (racial segregation) under the slogan of " swart gevaar". This led to the erosion and eventual abolition of the Cape's multiracial franchise, as well as to the Group Areas Act, which classified all areas according to race. Formerly multi-racial suburbs of Cape Town were either purged of unlawful residents or demolished. The most infamous example of this in Cape Town was District Six. After it was declared a whites-only region in 1965, all housing there was demolished and over 60,000 residents were forcibly removed. [21] Many of these residents were relocated to the Cape Flats and Lavender Hill. Under apartheid, the Cape was considered a " Coloured labour preference area", to the exclusion of " Bantus", i.e. Africans.

School students from Langa, Gugulethu and Nyanga in Cape Town reacted to the news of protests against Bantu Education in Soweto in June 1976 and organised gatherings and marches which were met with resistance from the police. A number of school buildings were burnt down. [22] [23]

Cape Town was home to many leaders of the anti-apartheid movement. On Robben Island, a former penitentiary island 10 kilometres (6 miles) from the city, many famous political prisoners were held for years. In one of the most famous moments marking the end of apartheid, Nelson Mandela made his first public speech since his imprisonment, from the balcony of Cape Town City Hall hours after being released on 11 February 1990. His speech heralded the beginning of a new era for the country, and the first democratic election, was held four years later, on 27 April 1994. Nobel Square in the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront features statues of South Africa's four Nobel Peace Prize winners: Albert Luthuli, Desmond Tutu, F. W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela. Since 1994, the city has struggled with problems such as drugs, a surge in violent drug-related crime and more recently gang violence. At the same time, the economy has surged to unprecedented levels due to the boom in the tourism and the real estate industries.[ citation needed] With a Gini coefficient of 0.67, Cape Town has the highest rate of equality in South Africa. [24]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Kaapstad
Alemannisch: Kapstadt
አማርኛ: ኬፕ ታውን
العربية: كيب تاون
aragonés: Ciudat d'o Cabo
arpetan: Lo Cap
asturianu: Ciudá del Cabu
Avañe'ẽ: Yvy akua Táva
azərbaycanca: Keyptaun
বাংলা: কেপ টাউন
Bân-lâm-gú: Cape Town
башҡортса: Кейптаун
беларуская: Кейптаўн
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кейптаўн
български: Кейптаун
bosanski: Cape Town
буряад: Кейптаун
Cebuano: Cape Town
čeština: Kapské Město
Chi-Chewa: Cape Town
chiShona: Cape Town
dansk: Kapstaden
Deutsch: Kapstadt
eesti: Kaplinn
Ελληνικά: Κέιπ Τάουν
español: Ciudad del Cabo
Esperanto: Kaburbo
فارسی: کیپ‌تاون
Fiji Hindi: Cape Town
føroyskt: Cape Town
français: Le Cap
Frysk: Kaapstêd
Gaeilge: Cape Town
Gàidhlig: Baile a' Chip
ગુજરાતી: કેપ ટાઉન
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Cape Town
한국어: 케이프타운
Հայերեն: Քեյփթաուն
हिन्दी: केपटाउन
hornjoserbsce: Kapstadt
hrvatski: Kaapstad
Ilokano: Cape Town
Bahasa Indonesia: Cape Town
isiXhosa: IKapa
isiZulu: IKapa
íslenska: Höfðaborg
italiano: Città del Capo
עברית: קייפטאון
Basa Jawa: Cape Town
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕೇಪ್ ಟೌನ್
ქართული: კეიპტაუნი
қазақша: Кейптаун
kernowek: Cape Town
Kiswahili: Cape Town
Kreyòl ayisyen: Li Kap
Кыргызча: Кейптаун
latviešu: Keiptauna
Lëtzebuergesch: Kapstad
lietuvių: Keiptaunas
lumbaart: Cità del Cap
magyar: Fokváros
македонски: Кејптаун
മലയാളം: കേപ് ടൗൺ
मराठी: केपटाउन
მარგალური: კეიპტაუნი
مصرى: كيب تاون
Bahasa Melayu: Cape Town
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Cape Town
монгол: Кейптаун
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကိပ်တောင်းမြို့
Nederlands: Kaapstad
नेपाली: केप टाउन
नेपाल भाषा: केपताउन
нохчийн: Кейптаун
norsk: Cape Town
norsk nynorsk: Cape Town
Nouormand: Lé Cap
occitan: Lo Cap
олык марий: Кейптаун
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: କେପ ଟାଉନ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Keyptaun
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੇਪਟਾਊਨ
پنجابی: کیپ ٹاؤن
پښتو: کېپ ټاون
Piemontèis: Sità dël Cap
polski: Kapsztad
português: Cidade do Cabo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Keyptaun
română: Cape Town
русиньскый: Капске Місто
русский: Кейптаун
саха тыла: Кейптаун
Scots: Cape Toun
Sesotho sa Leboa: Cape Town
Setswana: Cape Town
shqip: Kepi
sicilianu: Citati dû Capu
Simple English: Cape Town
slovenčina: Kapské Mesto
slovenščina: Cape Town
ślůnski: Kapsztad
Soomaaliga: Kab town
کوردی: کەیپ تاون
српски / srpski: Кејптаун
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Cape Town
svenska: Kapstaden
Tagalog: Cape Town
Taqbaylit: Cape Town
tarandíne: Cetate d'u Cápe
татарча/tatarça: Keyptawn
తెలుగు: కేప్ టౌన్
Tshivenda: Cape Town
Türkçe: Cape Town
Türkmençe: Keýptaun
українська: Кейптаун
اردو: کیپ ٹاؤن
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Kapétown
vèneto: Sità del Cao
vepsän kel’: Keiptaun
Tiếng Việt: Cape Town
Volapük: Cape Town
Winaray: Cape Town
ייִדיש: קאפשטאט
Yorùbá: Cape Town
粵語: 好望角鎮
Zeêuws: Kaepstad
žemaitėška: Keiptauns
中文: 開普敦
डोटेली: केपटाउन
Kabɩyɛ: Kaapɩ