Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin)
"From Sea to Sea"
Anthem: "O Canada"[a]
Projection of North America with Canada in green
45°24′N 75°40′W / 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400; -75.667
Largest cityToronto
Official languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentFederal parliamentary
constitutional monarchy[4]
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
Julie Payette
Justin Trudeau
House of Commons
July 1, 1867
December 11, 1931
April 17, 1982
• Total area
9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi) (2nd)
• Water (%)
• Total land area
9,093,507 km2 (3,511,023 sq mi)
• Q2 2019 estimate
37,602,103[5] (38th)
• 2016 census
• Density
3.92/km2 (10.2/sq mi) (228th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.900 trillion[7] (16th)
• Per capita
Increase $50,725[7] (21st)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.731 trillion[7] (10th)
• Per capita
Decrease $46,213[7] (18th)
Gini (2015)Negative increase 31.8[8]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.926[9]
very high · 12th
CurrencyCanadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zoneUTC−3.5 to −8
• Summer (DST)
UTC−2.5 to −7
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd (AD)[10]
Mains electricity120 V–60 Hz
Driving sideright
Calling code+1
ISO 3166 codeCA

Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern border with the United States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is highly urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 per cent residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada's climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons.

Various Indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.

Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with a monarch and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.

A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per-capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index. Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.


While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".[11] In 1535, Indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona.[12] Cartier later used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona (the chief at Stadacona);[12] by 1545, European books and maps had begun referring to this small region along the Saint Lawrence River as Canada.[12]

From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River.[13] In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas; until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841.[14] Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, and the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title.[15] By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth".[16] The government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using Dominion in the statutes of Canada in 1951.[17][18]

In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada fully under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, and later that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.[19] The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion.[20]

Other Languages
Acèh: Kanada
Адыгэбзэ: Канадэ
адыгабзэ: Канадэ
Afrikaans: Kanada
Alemannisch: Kanada
አማርኛ: ካናዳ
Ænglisc: Canada
Аҧсшәа: Канада
العربية: كندا
aragonés: Canadá
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܩܢܕܐ
armãneashti: Canada
arpetan: Canada
অসমীয়া: কানাডা
asturianu: Canadá
Atikamekw: Kanata
Avañe'ẽ: Kanatã
авар: Канада
Aymar aru: Kanada
azərbaycanca: Kanada
تۆرکجه: کانادا
bamanankan: Kanada
বাংলা: কানাডা
Bân-lâm-gú: Canada
башҡортса: Канада
беларуская: Канада
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Канада
भोजपुरी: कनाडा
Bikol Central: Kanada
Bislama: Kanada
български: Канада
Boarisch: Kanada
བོད་ཡིག: ཁ་ན་ཌ།
bosanski: Kanada
brezhoneg: Kanada
буряад: Канада
català: Canadà
Чӑвашла: Канада
Cebuano: Kanada
čeština: Kanada
Chamoru: Canada
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Canada
chiShona: Canada
corsu: Canadà
Cymraeg: Canada
dansk: Canada
davvisámegiella: Kanáda
Deitsch: Kanadaa
Deutsch: Kanada
ދިވެހިބަސް: ކެނެޑާ
Diné bizaad: Deeteel Bikéyah
dolnoserbski: Kanada
डोटेली: क्यानाडा
ཇོང་ཁ: ཀེ་ན་ཌ་
eesti: Kanada
Ελληνικά: Καναδάς
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Cànada
español: Canadá
Esperanto: Kanado
estremeñu: Canadá
euskara: Kanada
eʋegbe: Canada
فارسی: کانادا
Fiji Hindi: Canada
føroyskt: Kanada
français: Canada
Frysk: Kanada
furlan: Canadà
Gaeilge: Ceanada
Gagauz: Kanada
Gàidhlig: Canada
galego: Canadá
ГӀалгӀай: Канада
贛語: 加拿大
Gĩkũyũ: Canada
گیلکی: کانادا
ગુજરાતી: કેનેડા
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌺𐌰𐌽𐌰𐌳𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: कॅनडा
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kâ-nâ-thai
хальмг: Канадин Орн
한국어: 캐나다
Hausa: Kanada
Hawaiʻi: Kanakā
հայերեն: Կանադա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Քանատա
हिन्दी: कनाडा
hornjoserbsce: Kanada
hrvatski: Kanada
Ido: Kanada
Igbo: Kánada
Ilokano: Kanada
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: কানাডা
Bahasa Indonesia: Kanada
interlingua: Canada
Interlingue: Canada
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᑲᓇᑕ
Iñupiak: Kanada
Ирон: Канадæ
isiZulu: IKhanada
íslenska: Kanada
italiano: Canada
עברית: קנדה
Jawa: Kanadhah
Kabɩyɛ: Kanadaa
kalaallisut: Canada
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕೆನಡಾ
Kapampangan: Canada
къарачай-малкъар: Канада
ქართული: კანადა
kaszëbsczi: Kanada
қазақша: Канада
kernowek: Kanada
Kinyarwanda: Kanada
Kirundi: Kanada
Kiswahili: Kanada
коми: Канада
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kanada
kurdî: Kanada
Кыргызча: Канада
кырык мары: Канада
Ladino: Kanada
لۊری شومالی: کانادا
latgaļu: Kanada
Latina: Canada
latviešu: Kanāda
Lëtzebuergesch: Kanada
лезги: Канада
lietuvių: Kanada
Ligure: Canada
Limburgs: Canada
lingála: Kanadá
Lingua Franca Nova: Canada
Livvinkarjala: Kanuadu
la .lojban.: kadnygu'e
lumbaart: Canada
magyar: Kanada
मैथिली: क्यानाडा
македонски: Канада
Malagasy: Kanada
മലയാളം: കാനഡ
Malti: Kanada
Māori: Kānata
मराठी: कॅनडा
მარგალური: კანადა
مصرى: كندا
مازِرونی: کانادا
Bahasa Melayu: Kanada
Minangkabau: Kanada
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gă-nā-dâi
Mirandés: Canadá
мокшень: Канада
монгол: Канад
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကနေဒါနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Canada
Dorerin Naoero: Kanada
Nederlands: Canada
Nedersaksies: Kannede
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᑳᓇᑖ
नेपाली: क्यानडा
नेपाल भाषा: क्यानादा
日本語: カナダ
Napulitano: Canadà
нохчийн: Канада
Nordfriisk: Kanada
Norfuk / Pitkern: Kaneda
norsk: Canada
norsk nynorsk: Canada
ߒߞߏ: ߞߣߊߘߊ߫
Nouormand: Cannada
Novial: Kanada
occitan: Canadà
олык марий: Канада
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: କାନାଡ଼ା
Oromoo: Kanaadaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kanada
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੈਨੇਡਾ
पालि: केनडा
Pangasinan: Canada
پنجابی: کینیڈا
Papiamentu: Canada
پښتو: کاناډا
Patois: Kianada
ភាសាខ្មែរ: កាណាដា
Picard: Canada
Piemontèis: Canadà
Tok Pisin: Kanada
Plattdüütsch: Kanada
polski: Kanada
português: Canadá
Qaraqalpaqsha: Kanada
qırımtatarca: Kanada
reo tahiti: Tanata
română: Canada
romani čhib: Kanada
rumantsch: Canada
Runa Simi: Kanatá
русиньскый: Канада
русский: Канада
саха тыла: Канаада
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱰᱟ
Gagana Samoa: Kanata
संस्कृतम्: केनडा
Sängö: Kanadäa
sardu: Canada
Scots: Canadae
Seeltersk: Kanada
Sesotho sa Leboa: Canada
shqip: Kanadaja
sicilianu: Canadà
සිංහල: කැනඩාව
Simple English: Canada
سنڌي: ڪئناڊا
SiSwati: IKhanada
slovenčina: Kanada
slovenščina: Kanada
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Канада
ślůnski: Kanada
Soomaaliga: Kanada
کوردی: کەنەدا
Sranantongo: Kanadakondre
српски / srpski: Канада
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kanada
Sunda: Kanada
suomi: Kanada
svenska: Kanada
Tagalog: Canada
தமிழ்: கனடா
Taqbaylit: Kanada
tarandíne: Canada
татарча/tatarça: Канада
తెలుగు: కెనడా
tetun: Kanadá
ትግርኛ: ካናዳ
тоҷикӣ: Канада
Tsetsêhestâhese: Canada
Türkçe: Kanada
Türkmençe: Kanada
Twi: Kanada
удмурт: Канада
українська: Канада
اردو: کینیڈا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: كانادا
Vahcuengh: Gyahnazda
vèneto: Canada
vepsän kel’: Kanad
Tiếng Việt: Canada
Volapük: Kanadän
Võro: Kanada
文言: 加拿大
West-Vlams: Canada
Winaray: Kanada
Wolof: Kanadaa
吴语: 加拿大
Xitsonga: Khanada
ייִדיש: קאנאדע
Yorùbá: Kánádà
粵語: 加拿大
Zazaki: Kanada
Zeêuws: Canada
žemaitėška: Kanada
中文: 加拿大