Caldera

Mount Mazama's eruption timeline, an example of caldera formation

A caldera is a large cauldron-like depression that forms following the evacuation of a magma chamber/reservoir. When large volumes of magma are erupted over a short time period, structural support for the crust above the magma chamber is lost. The ground surface then collapses downward into the partially emptied magma chamber, leaving a massive depression at the surface (from one to dozens of kilometers in diameter). Although sometimes described as a crater, the feature is actually a type of sinkhole, as it is formed through subsidence and collapse rather than an explosion or impact. Only seven known caldera-forming collapses have occurred since the start of the 20th century, most recently at Bárðarbunga volcano in Iceland. [1]

Etymology

The word comes from Spanish caldera, and Latin caldaria, meaning "cooking pot". In some texts the English term cauldron is also used. The term caldera was introduced into the geological vocabulary by the German geologist Leopold von Buch when he published his memoirs of his 1815 visit to the Canary Islands, [note 1] where he first saw the Las Cañadas caldera on Tenerife, with Montaña Teide dominating the landscape, and then the Caldera de Taburiente on La Palma.

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Caldera (Krater)
العربية: كالديرا
azərbaycanca: Kalder
беларуская: Кальдэра
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кальдэра
भोजपुरी: काल्डेरा
български: Калдера
čeština: Kaldera
dansk: Caldera
eesti: Kaldeera
Ελληνικά: Καλδέρα
Esperanto: Kaldero
français: Caldeira
Gaeilge: Caildéara
한국어: 칼데라
Հայերեն: Կալդերա
hrvatski: Kaldera
Bahasa Indonesia: Kaldera
íslenska: Sigketill
italiano: Caldera
עברית: קלדרה
ქართული: კალდერა
қазақша: Кальдера
Kiswahili: Kaldera
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kaldera
Кыргызча: Кальдира
latviešu: Kaldera
Lëtzebuergesch: Caldera (Krater)
lietuvių: Kaldera
magyar: Kaldera
მარგალური: კალდერა
Bahasa Melayu: Kaldera
Nederlands: Caldeira
日本語: カルデラ
norsk: Kaldera
norsk nynorsk: Kaldera
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kaldera
polski: Kaldera
română: Caldeiră
русский: Кальдера
sardu: Caldera
Scots: Caldera
Simple English: Caldera
slovenčina: Kaldera
slovenščina: Kaldera
српски / srpski: Калдера
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kaldera
suomi: Kaldera
svenska: Kaldera
Türkçe: Kaldera
українська: Кальдера
Tiếng Việt: Hõm chảo
中文: 破火山口