CCR5

CCR5
CCR5+membrane1.png
Available structures
4MBS

IdentifiersCCR5, CC-CKR-5, CCCKR5, CCR-5, CD195, CKR-5, CKR5, CMKBR5, IDDM22, C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (gene/pseudogene)External IDs601373 107182 37325 CCR5
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 3 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 3 (human)[1]
Chromosome 3 (human)
Genomic location for CCR5
Genomic location for CCR5
Band3p21.31Start46,370,854 bp[1]
End46,376,206 bp[1]
OrthologsSpeciesHumanMouse12774

ENSMUSG00000079227

Chr 9: 124.12 – 124.15 MbPubMed search[3][4]Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse
Attachment of HIV to a CD4+ T-helper cell: 1) the gp120 viral protein attaches to CD4. 2) gp120 variable loop attaches to a coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4. 3) HIV enters the cell.

C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved in the immune system as it acts as a receptor for chemokines.[5]

In humans, the CCR5 gene that encodes the CCR5 protein is located on the short (p) arm at position 21 on chromosome 3. Certain populations have inherited the Delta 32 mutation, resulting in the genetic deletion of a portion of the CCR5 gene. Homozygous carriers of this mutation are resistant to M-tropic strains of HIV-1 infection.[6][7][8][9][10][11]

Function

The CCR5 protein belongs to the beta chemokine receptors family of integral membrane proteins.[12][13] It is a G protein–coupled receptor[12] which functions as a chemokine receptor in the CC chemokine group.

CCR5's cognate ligands include CCL3, CCL4 (also known as MIP 1α and 1β, respectively), and CCL3L1.[14][15] CCR5 furthermore interacts with CCL5 (a chemotactic cytokine protein also known as RANTES).[14][16][17]

CCR5 is predominantly expressed on T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, eosinophils, microglia and a subpopulation of either breast or prostate cancer cells.[18][19] The expression of CCR5 is selectively induced during the cancer transformation process and is not expressed in normal breast or prostate epithelial cells. Approximately 50% of human breast cancer expressed CCR5, primarily in triple negative breast cancer.[18] CCR5 inhibitors blocked the migration and metastasis of breast and prostate cancer cells that expressed CCR5, suggesting that CCR5 may function as a new therapeutic target.[18][19][20] Recent studies suggest that CCR5 is expressed in a subset of cancer cells with characteristics of cancer stem cells, which are known to drive therapy resistance, and that CCR5 inhibitors enhanced the number of cells killed by current chemotherapy.[21] It is likely that CCR5 plays a role in inflammatory responses to infection, though its exact role in normal immune function is unclear. Regions of this protein are also crucial for chemokine ligand binding, the functional response of the receptor, and HIV co-receptor activity.[22]

Primary Protein Sequence
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