Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire
Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων
Basileía Rhōmaíōn a
Imperium Romanum
c. 330 – 1453 b
Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great(r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great
(r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
The Empire at its greatest extent in AD 555 under
Justinian the Great (its vassals in pink)
Capital Constantinople b
Languages
  • Latin (official until 610)
  • Greek (official after 610)
Religion Christianity ( Eastern Orthodox)
(tolerated after the Edict of Milan in 313; state religion after 380)
Government Republican monarchy
Notable emperors
 •  c. 330–337 Constantine I
 •  457–474 Leo I
 •  527–565 Justinian I
 •  610–641 Heraclius
 •  976–1025 Basil II
 •  1081–1118 Alexius I
 •  1259–1282 Michael VIII
 •  1449–1453 Constantine XI
Historical era Late Antiquity to Late Middle Ages
 •  Partition of the Roman Empire 285
 •  Founding of Constantinople 330
 •  Death of Theodosius I 395
 •  Nominal end of the Western Roman Empire 476
 •  Fourth Crusade - establishment of Latin Empire 1204
 •  Reconquest of Constantinople by Palaiologos 1261
 •  Fall of Constantinople 29 May 1453
 •  Fall of Trebizond 15 August 1461
 •  Fall of Principality of Theodoro December 1475
Population
 •  565 AD est. 26,000,000 c 
 •  780 AD est. 7,000,000 
 •  1025 AD est. 12,000,000 
Currency Solidus, Hyperpyron and Follis
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Dio coin3.jpg Roman Empire
Ottoman Empire
a. ^ Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων may be transliterated in Latin as Basileia Rhōmaiōn, meaning Roman Empire.
b. ^ Between 1204 and 1261 there was an interregnum when the Empire was divided into the Empire of Nicaea, the Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus, which were all contenders for rule of the Empire. The Empire of Nicaea is considered the legitimate continuation of the Byzantine Empire because they managed to re-take Constantinople.
c. ^ See Population of the Byzantine Empire for more detailed figures taken provided by McEvedy and Jones, Atlas of World Population History, 1978, as well as Angeliki E. Laiou, The Economic History of Byzantium, 2002.

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. [1] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire ( Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. Basileia tôn Rhōmaiōn; Latin: Imperium Romanum), [2] or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans." [3]

Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I (r. 324–337) reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, and legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I (r. 379–395), Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. [4] Thus, although the Roman state continued and Roman state traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterised by Orthodox Christianity. [3]

The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I (r. 527–565), the Empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the historically Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa, Italy, and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries. During the reign of Maurice (r. 582–602), the Empire's eastern frontier was expanded and the north stabilised. However, his assassination caused the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, which exhausted the Empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the seventh century. In a matter of years the Empire lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. [5]

During the Macedonian dynasty (10th–11th centuries), the Empire again expanded and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia.

The Empire recovered again during the Komnenian restoration, such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. [6] However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the Empire formerly governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire. [7]

Nomenclature

The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the later years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources. The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. The publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre ( Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae), and in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. [8] However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world. [9]

The Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans" (Latin: Imperium Romanum, Imperium Romanorum; Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn, Ἀρχὴ τῶν Ῥωμαίων Archē tōn Rhōmaiōn), "Romania" (Latin: Romania; Greek: Ῥωμανία Rhōmania), [n 1] the "Roman Republic" (Latin: Res Publica Romana; Greek: Πολιτεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Politeia tōn Rhōmaiōn), and also as Rhōmais (Greek: Ῥωμαΐς). [12] The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi, and even as late as the 19th century Greeks typically referred to modern Greek as Romaika.

Although the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history [13] and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, [14] it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its increasingly predominant Greek element. [15] The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" (Latin: Imperium Graecorum) in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum (Emperor of the Greeks) [16] were also used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. [17]

The authority of the Byzantine emperor as the legitimate Roman emperor was challenged by the coronation of Charlemagne as Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III in the year 800. Needing Charlemagne's support in his struggle against his enemies in Rome, Leo used the lack of a male occupant of the throne of the Roman Empire at the time to claim that it was vacant and that he could therefore crown a new Emperor himself. [18]

No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known primarily as Rûm. [19] The name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire, that is, the Orthodox Christian community within Ottoman realms.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Bisantynse Ryk
azərbaycanca: Bizans İmperiyası
Bân-lâm-gú: Tang Lô-má Tè-kok
беларуская: Візантыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Бізантыйская імпэрыя
Чӑвашла: Висанти
eesti: Bütsants
Esperanto: Bizanca imperio
Fiji Hindi: Byzantine Samrajya
français: Empire byzantin
hrvatski: Bizant
Bahasa Indonesia: Kekaisaran Romawi Timur
interlingua: Imperio Byzantin
Кыргызча: Византия
لۊری شومالی: بیزانس
lietuvių: Bizantija
Limburgs: Byzantijns Riek
lumbaart: Impero Bizantin
македонски: Византија
Malti: Biżantini
მარგალური: ბიზანტია
مازِرونی: بیزانس
Bahasa Melayu: Empayar Byzantine
Nederlands: Byzantijnse Rijk
Nedersaksies: Byzantiense Riek
Napulitano: Impero Bizantino
Nordfriisk: Uaströömsk Rik
norsk nynorsk: Austromarriket
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Vizantiya imperiyasi
Plattdüütsch: Byzantiensch Riek
Ποντιακά: Ρωμανίαν
português: Império Bizantino
qırımtatarca: Bizans İmperiyası
rumantsch: Imperi bizantin
русиньскый: Візантьска ріша
русский: Византия
Simple English: Byzantine Empire
slovenčina: Byzantská ríša
slovenščina: Bizantinsko cesarstvo
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bizantsko Carstvo
tarandíne: 'Mbere Bizzandine
татарча/tatarça: Византия империясе
тоҷикӣ: Византия
Võro: Bütsants
West-Vlams: Byzantyns Ryk
žemaitėška: Bizantėjė