Bulgarian language

Bulgarian
български
bălgarski
Bulgarska Azbuka.png
Native toBulgaria, Serbia, Albania, Kosovo, Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Turkey, Ukraine, Moldova, Romania and among emigrant communities worldwide
RegionSoutheastern Europe
EthnicityBulgarians
Native speakers
8[1]–9[2][3][4][5] million (2011)
Indo-European
Dialects
Official status
Official language in
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byInstitute for the Bulgarian language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Институт за български език при Българската академия на науките (БАН))
Language codes
ISO 639-1bg
ISO 639-2bul
ISO 639-3bul
Glottologbulg1262[8]
Linguasphere53-AAA-hb < 53-AAA-h
Idioma búlgaro1.png
The Bulgarian-speaking world:
  regions where Bulgarian is the language of the majority
  regions where Bulgarian is the language of a significant minority
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Bulgarian n/ (About this sound listen), Bulgarian: български bǎlgarski, pronounced [ˈbɤɫɡɐrski]) is an Indo-European language, a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic language family.

Bulgarian, along with the closely related Macedonian language (collectively forming the East South Slavic languages), has several characteristics that set it apart from all other Slavic languages: changes include the elimination of case declension, the development of a suffixed definite article (see Balkan language area), and the lack of a verb infinitive, but it retains and has further developed the Proto-Slavic verb system. Various evidential verb forms exist to express unwitnessed, retold, and doubtful action.

With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Bulgarian became one of the official languages of the European Union.[9][10]

History

One can divide the development of the Bulgarian language into several periods.

  • The Prehistoric period covers the time between the Slavonic migration to the eastern Balkans (c. 7th century CE) and the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius to Great Moravia in the 860s.
  • Old Bulgarian (9th to 11th centuries, also referred to as "Old Church Slavonic") – a literary norm of the early southern dialect of the Common Slavic language from which Bulgarian evolved. Saints Cyril and Methodius and their disciples used this norm when translating the Bible and other liturgical literature from Greek into Slavic.
  • Middle Bulgarian (12th to 15th centuries) – a literary norm that evolved from the earlier Old Bulgarian, after major innovations occurred. A language of rich literary activity, it served as the official administration language of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
  • Modern Bulgarian dates from the 16th century onwards, undergoing general grammar and syntax changes in the 18th and 19th centuries. Present-day written Bulgarian language was standardized on the basis of the 19th-century Bulgarian vernacular. The historical development of the Bulgarian language can be described as a transition from a highly synthetic language (Old Bulgarian) to a typical analytic language (Modern Bulgarian) with Middle Bulgarian as a midpoint in this transition.
The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century

Bulgarian was the first "Slavic" language attested in writing. As Slavic linguistic unity lasted into late antiquity, the oldest manuscripts initially referred to this language was as языкъ словяньскъ, "the Slavic language". In the Middle Bulgarian period this name was gradually replaced by the name языкъ блъгарьскъ, the "Bulgarian language". In some cases, the name языкъ блъгарьскъ was used not only with regard to the contemporary Middle Bulgarian language of the copyist but also to the period of Old Bulgarian. A most notable example of anachronism is the Service of St. Cyril from Skopje (Скопски миней), a 13th-century Middle Bulgarian manuscript from northern Macedonia according to which St. Cyril preached with "Bulgarian" books among the Moravian Slavs. The first mention of the language as the "Bulgarian language" instead of the "Slavonic language" comes in the work of the Greek clergy of the Bulgarian Archbishopric of Ohrid in the 11th century, for example in the Greek hagiography of Saint Clement of Ohrid by Theophylact of Ohrid (late 11th century).

During the Middle Bulgarian period, the language underwent dramatic changes, losing the Slavonic case system, but preserving the rich verb system (while the development was exactly the opposite in other Slavic languages) and developing a definite article. It was influenced by its non-Slavic neighbors in the Balkan language area (mostly grammatically) and later also by Turkish, which was the official language of the Ottoman Empire, in the form of the Ottoman Turkish language, mostly lexically. As a national revival occurred toward the end of the period of Ottoman rule (mostly during the 19th century), a modern Bulgarian literary language gradually emerged that drew heavily on Church Slavonic/Old Bulgarian (and to some extent on literary Russian, which had preserved many lexical items from Church Slavonic) and later reduced the number of Turkish and other Balkan loans. Today one difference between Bulgarian dialects in the country and literary spoken Bulgarian is the significant presence of Old Bulgarian words and even word forms in the latter. Russian loans are distinguished from Old Bulgarian ones on the basis of the presence of specifically Russian phonetic changes, as in оборот (turnover, rev), непонятен (incomprehensible), ядро (nucleus) and others. As usual in such[which?] cases, many other loans from French, English and the classical languages have subsequently entered the language as well.

Modern Bulgarian was based essentially on the Eastern dialects of the language, but its pronunciation is in many respects a compromise between East and West Bulgarian (see especially the phonetic sections below). Following the efforts of some figures of the National awakening of Bulgaria (most notably Neofit Rilski and Ivan Bogorov),[11] there had been many attempts to codify a standard Bulgarian language; however, there was much argument surrounding the choice of norms. Between 1835 and 1878 more than 25 proposals were put forward and "linguistic chaos" ensued.[12] Eventually the eastern dialects prevailed,[13] and in 1899 the Bulgarian Ministry of Education officially codified[12] a standard Bulgarian language based on the Drinov-Ivanchev orthography.[13]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Bulgaars
አማርኛ: ቡልጋርኛ
العربية: لغة بلغارية
aragonés: Idioma bulgaro
arpetan: Bulgaro
asturianu: Idioma búlgaru
Avañe'ẽ: Vugariañe'ẽ
azərbaycanca: Bolqar dili
Bân-lâm-gú: Bulgaria-gí
башҡортса: Болгар теле
беларуская: Балгарская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Баўгарская мова
български: Български език
bosanski: Bugarski jezik
brezhoneg: Bulgareg
català: Búlgar
Чӑвашла: Полхар чĕлхи
čeština: Bulharština
Cymraeg: Bwlgareg
davvisámegiella: Bulgáriagiella
dolnoserbski: Bulgarska rěc
español: Idioma búlgaro
Esperanto: Bulgara lingvo
euskara: Bulgariera
Fiji Hindi: Bulgarian language
føroyskt: Bulgarskt mál
français: Bulgare
Frysk: Bulgaarsk
Gaelg: Bulgeyrish
Gagauz: Bulgar dili
Gàidhlig: Bulgàiris
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Bulgaria-ngî
한국어: 불가리아어
հայերեն: Բուլղարերեն
hornjoserbsce: Bołharšćina
hrvatski: Bugarski jezik
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Bulgaria
íslenska: Búlgarska
italiano: Lingua bulgara
עברית: בולגרית
Basa Jawa: Basa Bulgari
қазақша: Болгар тілі
kernowek: Bulgarek
Kinyarwanda: Ikibulugariya
Kiswahili: Kibulgaria
Кыргызча: Болгар тили
latviešu: Bulgāru valoda
Lëtzebuergesch: Bulgaresch
lietuvių: Bulgarų kalba
Limburgs: Bölgaars
lumbaart: Lengua bulghera
македонски: Бугарски јазик
მარგალური: ბულგარული ნინა
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Bulgaria
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Bulgaria-ngṳ̄
монгол: Болгар хэл
Nederlands: Bulgaars
नेपाल भाषा: बुल्गेरियन भाषा
Nordfriisk: Bulgaarsk spriak
Norfuk / Pitkern: Bulgeriyan
norsk: Bulgarsk
norsk nynorsk: Bulgarsk
occitan: Bulgar
олык марий: Болгар йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Bolgar tili
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਲਗਾਰੀ
پنجابی: بلغاری
Piemontèis: Lenga bùlgara
Tok Pisin: Tok Balgeria
português: Língua búlgara
Qaraqalpaqsha: Bolgar tili
română: Limba bulgară
Runa Simi: Bulgarya simi
русиньскый: Булгарьскый язык
Simple English: Bulgarian language
slovenčina: Bulharčina
slovenščina: Bolgarščina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Блъгарьскъ ѩꙁꙑкъ
српски / srpski: Бугарски језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bugarski jezik
svenska: Bulgariska
Taqbaylit: Tabulgart
татарча/tatarça: Болгар теле (славян)
Türkçe: Bulgarca
удмурт: Болгар кыл
українська: Болгарська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: بۇلغارىيە تىلى
vepsän kel’: Bolgarijan kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Bulgaria
Volapük: Bulgaränapük
ייִדיש: בולגאריש
Zazaki: Bulğarki
žemaitėška: Bolgaru kalba
ГӀалгӀай: Булгарой мотт
Lingua Franca Nova: Balgarsce (lingua)