View of Bulawayo's Central Business District (CBD) from Pioneer House by Prince Phumulani Nyoni. The CBD is 5.4 square kilometres and is in a grid pattern with 17 avenues and 11 streets.
View of Bulawayo's Central Business District (CBD) from Pioneer House by Prince Phumulani Nyoni. The CBD is 5.4 square kilometres and is in a grid pattern with 17 avenues and 11 streets.
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Location in Bulawayo Province
Location in Bulawayo Province
Bulawayo is located in Zimbabwe
Location in Bulawayo Province
Coordinates: 20°10′12″S 28°34′48″E / 20°10′12″S 28°34′48″E / -20.17000; 28.58000

Bulawayo (Ndebele: koBulawayo) is the second largest city in Zimbabwe, and the largest city in the country's Matabeleland. The city's population is disputed; the 2012 census listed it at 653,337, while the Bulawayo City Council claimed it to be about 1.2 million. Bulawayo covers an area of about 1,707 square kilometres (659 sq mi) in the western part of the country, along the Matsh' Amhlope River. Along with the capital Harare, Bulawayo is one of two cities in Zimbabwe that are also a province.

Bulawayo was founded around 1840 as the kraal of Mzilikazi, the Ndebele king. His son, Lobengula, succeeded him in the 1860s, and ruled from Bulawayo until 1893, when the settlement was captured by British South Africa Company soldiers during the First Matabele War. That year, the first white settlers arrived and rebuilt the town. The town was besieged by Ndebele warriors during the Second Matabele War. Bulawayo attained municipality status in 1897, and city status in 1943.

Bulawayo is, at least historically, the principal industrial centre of Zimbabwe; its factories produce cars and car products, building materials, electronic products, textiles, furniture, and food products. Bulawayo is also the hub of Zimbabwe's rail network and the headquarters of the National Railways of Zimbabwe.In recent years, the city's economy has struggled as many factories either closed or moved operations to Harare. Still, Bulawayo has the highest Human Development Index in the country, at .649 as of 2017.

Bulawayo's central business district (CBD) covers 5.4 square kilometres (2.1 sq mi) in the heart of the city, and is surrounded by numerous suburbs towards the outskirts. The majority of the city's population belong to the Ndebele people, with minorities of Shona and other groups. Bulawayo is home to over a dozen colleges and universities, most notably the National University of Science and Technology. The Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe, formerly the National Museum, is located in Bulawayo, and the city is in close proximity to popular tourist sites like Matobo National Park and the Khami Ruins, and World Heritage Site.


Inhabitant of Bulawayo, 1890
Bulawayo Scouts in 1893

The city was founded by the Ndebele king, Lobhengula, the son of King Mzilikazi born of Matshobana who settled in modern-day Zimbabwe around the 1840s after the Ndebele people's great trek from Nguniland. The name Bulawayo comes from the Ndebele word KoBulawayo meaning "a place where he is being killed". It is thought that, at the time of the formation of the city, there was a civil war. A group of Ndebeles not aligned to Prince Lobengula were fighting him as they felt he was not the heir to the throne, hence he gave his capital the name "where he (the prince) is being killed". It is said that when King Lobengula named the place "KoBulawayo" his generals asked "who is being killed mtanenkosi (prince)?" and he replied "Yimi umntwanenkosi engibulawayo", meaning "it's me, the prince, who is being killed". At the time Lobengula was a prince fighting to ascend his father's (Mzilikazi) throne. It was common at the time for people to refer to Bulawayo as "KoBulawayo UmntwaneNkosi" "a place where they are fighting or rising against the prince". The name Bulawayo is imported from Nguniland which was once occupied by the Khumalo people. The place still exists: It is next to Richards Bay.[citation needed]

In the 1860s the city was further influenced by European intrigue, and many colonial powers cast covetous eyes on Bulawayo and the land surrounding it. Britain made skillful use of private initiative in the shape of Cecil Rhodes and the Chartered Company to disarm the suspicion of her rivals. Lobengula once described Britain as a chameleon and himself as the fly.[3]

During the 1893 Matabele War, the invasion by British South Africa Company troops forced King Lobengula to evacuate his followers, after first detonating munitions and setting fire to the town.[4] BSAC troops and white settlers occupied the ruins. On 4 November 1893, Leander Starr Jameson declared Bulawayo a settlement under the rule of the British South Africa Company. Cecil Rhodes ordained that the new settlement be founded on the ruins of Lobengula's royal kraal, which is where the State House stands today. In 1897, the new town of Bulawayo acquired the status of municipality, and Lt. Col. Harry White became one of the first mayors.[5]


At the outbreak of the Second Matabele War, in March 1896, Bulawayo was besieged by Ndebele forces, and a laager was established there for defensive purposes. The Ndebele had experienced the brutal effectiveness of the British Maxim guns in the First Matabele War, so they never mounted a significant attack against Bulawayo, even though over 10,000 Ndebele warriors could be seen near the town. Rather than wait passively, the settlers mounted patrols, called the Bulawayo Field Force, under Frederick Selous and Frederick Russell Burnham. These patrols rode out to rescue any surviving settlers in the countryside and attacked the Ndebele. In the first week of fighting, 20 men of the Bulawayo Field Force were killed and 50 were wounded. An unknown number of Ndebele were killed and wounded.

During the siege, conditions in Bulawayo quickly deteriorated. By day, settlers could go to homes and buildings in the town, but at night they were forced to seek shelter in the much smaller laager. Nearly 1,000 women and children were crowded into the small area and false alarms of attacks were common. The Ndebele made a critical error during the siege in neglecting to cut the telegraph lines connecting Bulawayo to Mafikeng. This gave the besieged Bulawayo Field Force and the British relief forces, coming from Salisbury and Fort Victoria (now Harare and Masvingo respectively) 300 miles to the north, and from Kimberley and Mafeking 600 miles to the south, far more information than they would otherwise have had. Once the relief forces arrived in late May 1896, the siege was broken and an estimated 50,000 Ndebele retreated into their stronghold, the Matobo Hills near Bulawayo. Not until October 1896 would the Ndebele finally lay down their arms to the invaders.

Modern city

In 1943, Bulawayo received city status.

In recent years, Bulawayo has experienced a sharp fall in living standards coinciding with the severe economic crisis affecting the country. The main problems include poor investment, reluctance by government to improve infrastructure and corruption and nepotism leading to most original dwellers of the city migrating south to the neighbouring South Africa. Water shortages due to lack of expansion in facilities and supplies have become steadily more acute since 1992. Cholera broke out in 2008. Though the city is the centre of the southern population generally categorized as the Matebele, the composition of the city is made up of people from all over the country. The Central Business District has the widest roads which were deliberately made so to accommodate the carts that were used as a primary means of transport back when the town was planned and erected.

Bulawayo is nicknamed the "City of Kings" or "kontuthu ziyathunqa"—a Ndebele phrase for "smoke arising". This name arose from the city's historically large industrial base and specifically draws from the large cooling towers of the coal powered electricity generating plant situated in the city centre that once used to billow steam and smoke over the city.[6] The majority of Bulawayo's population belongs to the Ndebele ethnic and language group (otherwise known as Northern Ndebele).[7]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Bulawayo
العربية: بولاوايو
azərbaycanca: Bulavayo
беларуская: Булавая
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Булаваё
български: Булавейо
Boarisch: Bulawayo
brezhoneg: Bulawayo
català: Bulawayo
čeština: Bulawayo
chiShona: Bulawayo
Cymraeg: Bulawayo
dansk: Bulawayo
Deutsch: Bulawayo
eesti: Bulawayo
español: Bulawayo
Esperanto: Bulawayo
euskara: Bulawayo
فارسی: بولاوایو
français: Bulawayo
Gaeilge: Bulawayo
한국어: 불라와요
हिन्दी: बुलावायो
hrvatski: Bulawayo
Bahasa Indonesia: Bulawayo
Interlingue: Bulawayo
italiano: Bulawayo
עברית: בולאוואיו
ქართული: ბულავაიო
Kiswahili: Bulawayo
Кыргызча: Булавайо
кырык мары: Булавайо
lietuvių: Bulavajas
magyar: Bulawayo
മലയാളം: ബുലവായോ
मराठी: बुलावायो
Bahasa Melayu: Bulawayo
Nederlands: Bulawayo
Nedersaksies: Bulawayo
日本語: ブラワヨ
Nordfriisk: Bulawayo (Steed)
norsk: Bulawayo
polski: Bulawayo
português: Bulawayo
română: Bulawayo
русский: Булавайо
Scots: Bulawayo
shqip: Bulawayo
српски / srpski: Булавајо
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bulawayo
suomi: Bulawayo
svenska: Bulawayo
Türkçe: Bulawayo
українська: Булавайо
Tiếng Việt: Bulawayo
Winaray: Bulawayo
中文: 布拉瓦约